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Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa
LaFI—Laboratory of Pharmacology and Immunity, Institute of Biological Sciences and Health, Federal University of Alagoas, 57020-720, Maceió, AL, Brazil
Laboratory of Technology Pharmaceutical, Federal University of Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil
Laboratory of Marine Algae, Department of Systematics and Ecology, Federal University of Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil
Laboratory of Research in Natural Resources, Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, 57072-970, Maceió, AL, Brazil
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2011; in revised form: 19 February 2011 / Accepted: 24 February 2011 / Published: 2 March 2011
Abstract: Marine natural products have been the focus of discovery for new products of chemical and pharmacological interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanolic (ME), acetate (AE), hexanic (HE) and chloroform (CE) extracts obtained from Caulerpa mexicana, and ME, CE and HE obtained from Caulerpa sertularioides. These marine algae are found all over the world, mainly in tropical regions. Models such as the writhing test, the hot plate test and formalin-induced nociception test were used to evaluate antinociceptive activity in laboratory mice. In the writhing test, all the extracts were administered orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and induced high peripheral antinociceptive activity, with a reduction in the nociception induced by acetic acid above 65%. In the hot plate test, treatment with extracts from C. sertularioides (100 mg/kg, p.o.) did not significantly increase the latency of response, although the ME, AE and HE from C. mexicana showed activity in this model. This result suggests that these extracts exhibit antinociceptive activity. In the formalin test, it was observed that ME, AE and HE obtained from C. mexicana reduced the effects of formalin in both phases. On the other hand only CE from C. sertularioides induced significant inhibition of the nociceptive response in the first phase. To better assess the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, the carrageenan-induced peritonitis test was used to test Caulerpa spp. extracts on cell migration into the peritoneal cavity. In this assay, all extracts evaluated were able to significantly inhibit leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity in comparison with carrageenan. These data demonstrate that extracts from Caulerpa species elicit pronounced antinociceptive and anti-inflamatory activity against several nociception models. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s) responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify the active principles present in the Caulerpa species.
Keywords: antinociceptive; anti-inflammatory; Caulerpa mexicana; Caulerpa sertularioide; marine algae
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Brito da Matta, C.B.; De Souza, É.T.; De Queiroz, A.C.; De Lira, D.P.; De Araújo, M.V.; Cavalcante-Silva, L.H.A.; De Miranda, G.E.C.; De Araújo-Júnior, J.X.; Barbosa-Filho, J.M.; De Oliveira Santos, B.V.; Alexandre-Moreira, M.S. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 307-318.
Brito da Matta CB, De Souza ÉT, De Queiroz AC, De Lira DP, De Araújo MV, Cavalcante-Silva LHA, De Miranda GEC, De Araújo-Júnior JX, Barbosa-Filho JM, De Oliveira Santos BV, Alexandre-Moreira MS. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(3):307-318.
Brito da Matta, Carolina Babosa; De Souza, Éverton Tenório; De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; De Lira, Daysianne Pereira; De Araújo, Morgana Vital; Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; De Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; De Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; De Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana. 2011. "Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activity from Algae of the Genus Caulerpa." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 3: 307-318.