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A correction was published on 21 October 2009, see Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(4), 495-496.

Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(1), 24-44; doi:10.3390/md7010024
Article

Actinomycetes for Marine Drug Discovery Isolated from Mangrove Soils and Plants in China

1,* , 2
, 1
, 3
, 1, 1
, 2
, 2
, 3
, 4
 and 1, 5
1 Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences, Haikou 571101, P.R.China 2 National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai 201203, China 3 Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine & Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, P.R. China 4 University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK 5 Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100081, P.R. China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2008 / Revised: 12 January 2009 / Accepted: 21 January 2009 / Published: 3 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Drugs Studies in China)
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Abstract

The mangrove ecosystem is a largely unexplored source for actinomycetes with the potential to produce biologically active secondary metabolites. Consequently, we set out to isolate, characterize and screen actinomycetes from soil and plant material collected from eight mangrove sites in China. Over 2,000 actinomycetes were isolated and of these approximately 20%, 5%, and 10% inhibited the growth of Human Colon Tumor 116 cells, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, while 3% inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a protein related to diabetes. In addition, nine isolates inhibited aurora kinase A, an anti-cancer related protein, and three inhibited caspase 3, a protein related to neurodegenerative diseases. Representative bioactive isolates were characterized using genotypic and phenotypic procedures and classified to thirteen genera, notably to the genera Micromonospora and Streptomyces. Actinomycetes showing cytotoxic activity were assigned to seven genera whereas only Micromonospora and Streptomyces strains showed anti-PTP1B activity. We conclude that actinomycetes isolated from mangrove habitats are a potentially rich source for the discovery of anti-infection and anti-tumor compounds, and of agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes.
Keywords: Mangroves; actinomycete diversity; marine drug discovery; high-throughput screening; growth inhibition; protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B; aurora kinase A; caspase Mangroves; actinomycete diversity; marine drug discovery; high-throughput screening; growth inhibition; protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B; aurora kinase A; caspase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Hong, K.; Gao, A.-H.; Xie, Q.-Y.; Gao, H.G.; Zhuang, L.; Lin, H.-P.; Yu, H.-P.; Li, J.; Yao, X.-S.; Goodfellow, M.; Ruan, J.-S. Actinomycetes for Marine Drug Discovery Isolated from Mangrove Soils and Plants in China. Mar. Drugs 2009, 7, 24-44.

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