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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(5), 103; doi:10.3390/md14050103

Time Dependency of Chemodiversity and Biosynthetic Pathways: An LC-MS Metabolomic Study of Marine-Sourced Penicillium

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Nantes, EA 2160-Mer Molécules Santé, 9 rue Bias BP 53508, Nantes-cedex 1 44035, France
2
ThalassOMICS, Plateforme Corsaire, Biogenouest, Nantes 44035, France
3
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris, USR 3579, LBBM, Observatoire Océanologique, Banyuls-sur-Mer 66650, France
4
Laboratoire d’Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), LUNAM Université, Oniris, Nantes 44307, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anake Kijjoa
Received: 19 February 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
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Abstract

This work aimed at studying metabolome variations of marine fungal strains along their growth to highlight the importance of the parameter “time” for new natural products discovery. An untargeted time-scale metabolomic study has been performed on two different marine-derived Penicillium strains. They were cultivated for 18 days and their crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-HRMS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry) each day. With the example of griseofulvin biosynthesis, a pathway shared by both strains, this work provides a new approach to study biosynthetic pathway regulations, which could be applied to other metabolites and more particularly new ones. Moreover, the results of this study emphasize the interest of such an approach for the discovery of new chemical entities. In particular, at every harvesting time, previously undetected features were observed in the LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) data. Therefore, harvesting times for metabolite extraction should be performed at different time points to access the hidden metabolome. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosynthesis; griseofulvin; kinetics; LC-MS; marine fungi; natural products; time-scale metabolomics; untargeted metabolomics biosynthesis; griseofulvin; kinetics; LC-MS; marine fungi; natural products; time-scale metabolomics; untargeted metabolomics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Roullier, C.; Bertrand, S.; Blanchet, E.; Peigné, M.; Robiou du Pont, T.; Guitton, Y.; Pouchus, Y.F.; Grovel, O. Time Dependency of Chemodiversity and Biosynthetic Pathways: An LC-MS Metabolomic Study of Marine-Sourced Penicillium. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 103.

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