Next Article in Journal
Structures and Activity of New Anabaenopeptins Produced by Baltic Sea Cyanobacteria
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization and Comparison of the Structural Features, Immune-Modulatory and Anti-Avian Influenza Virus Activities Conferred by Three Algal Sulfated Polysaccharides
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Marine-Derived Kinase Inhibitor Fascaplysin Exerts Anti-Thrombotic Activity
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(1), 7; doi:10.3390/md14010007

Determination of FVIIa-sTF Inhibitors in Toxic Microcystis Cyanobacteria by LC-MS Technique

Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan
Graduate School of Environmental and Human Sciences, Meijo University, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan
Department of Brain Functions, Division of Stress Adaptation and Protection, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vitor H. Pomin
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anticoagulants and Antithrombotics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1439 KB, uploaded 6 January 2016]   |  


The blood coagulation cascade involves the human coagulation factors thrombin and an activated factor VII (fVIIa). Thrombin and fVIIa are vitamin-K-dependent clotting factors associated with bleeding, bleeding complications and disorders. Thrombin and fVIIa cause excessive bleeding when treated with vitamin-K antagonists. In this research, we explored different strains of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa and cyanobacteria blooms for the probable fVIIa-soluble Tissue Factor (fVIIa-sTF) inhibitors. The algal cells were subjected to acidification, and reverse phase (ODS) chromatography-solid phase extraction eluted by water to 100% MeOH with 20%-MeOH increments except for M. aeruginosa NIES-89, from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), which was eluted with 5%-MeOH increments as an isolation procedure to separate aeruginosins 89A and B from co-eluting microcystins. The 40%–80% MeOH fractions of the cyanobacterial extract are active against fVIIa-sTF. The fVIIa-sTF active fractions from cultured cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria blooms were subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The 60% MeOH fraction of M. aeruginosa K139 exhibited an m/z 603 [M + H]+ attributed to aeruginosin K139, and the 40% MeOH fraction of M. aeruginosa NIES-89 displayed ions with m/z 617 [M − SO3 + H]+ and m/z [M + H]+ 717, which attributed to aeruginosin 89. Aeruginosins 102A/B and 298A/B were also observed from other toxic strains of M. aeruginosa with positive fVIIa-sTF inhibitory activity. The active fractions contained cyanobacterial peptides of the aeruginosin class as fVIIa-sTF inhibitors detected by LC-MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; toxic Microcystis; anticoagulant; fVIIa-sTF inhibitors; peptides; aeruginosins; blood coagulation cascade cyanobacteria; toxic Microcystis; anticoagulant; fVIIa-sTF inhibitors; peptides; aeruginosins; blood coagulation cascade

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Anas, A.R.J.; Nakajima, A.; Naruse, C.; Tone, M.; Asukabe, H.; Harada, K.-I. Determination of FVIIa-sTF Inhibitors in Toxic Microcystis Cyanobacteria by LC-MS Technique. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 7.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top