Next Article in Journal
Can Some Marine-Derived Fungal Metabolites Become Actual Anticancer Agents?
Next Article in Special Issue
Purification and Characterization of a Fucoidanase (FNase S) from a Marine Bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis PF-1
Previous Article in Journal
Persistent Contamination of Octopuses and Mussels with Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins during Spring Dinophysis Blooms in a Subtropical Estuary
Previous Article in Special Issue
Extraction, Isolation, Structural Characterization and Anti-Tumor Properties of an Apigalacturonan-Rich Polysaccharide from the Sea Grass Zostera caespitosa Miki
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3936-3949; doi:10.3390/md13063936

Induction of Apoptosis and Antitumor Activity of Eel Skin Mucus, Containing Lactose-Binding Molecules, on Human Leukemic K562 Cells

1
Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Chunchun-Dong 300, Jangan-Gu, Suwon City, Kyunggi-Do 440-746, Korea
2
Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-Do 626-770, Korea
3
Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718, Korea
4
College of Natural Resources and Life Science, Dong-A University, Busan, 604-714, Korea
5
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Sung University, Nam-Gu, Busan, 608-736, Korea
6
College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Trincone
Received: 5 March 2015 / Revised: 2 June 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1627 KB, uploaded 19 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

For innate immune defense, lower animals such as fish and amphibian are covered with skin mucus, which acts as both a mechanical and biochemical barrier. Although several mucus sources have been isolated and studied for their biochemical and immunological functions, the precise mechanism(s) of action remains unknown. In the present study, we additionally found the eel skin mucus (ESM) to be a promising candidate for use in anti-tumor therapy. Our results showed that the viability of K562 cells was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with the isolated ESM. The cleaved forms of caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase were increased by ESM. The levels of Bax expression and released cytochrome C were also increased after treatment with ESM. Furthermore, during the ESM mediated-apoptosis, phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK were increased and cell viabilities of the co-treated cells with ESM and inhibitors of ERK 1/2 or p38 were also increased. In addition, treatment with lactose rescued the ESM-mediated decrease in cell viability, indicating lactose-containing glycans in the leukemia cells acted as a counterpart of the ESM for interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that ESM could induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through membrane interaction of the K562 human leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation that ESM has anti-tumor activity in human cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: mucus; Anguilla japonica; apoptosis; lectin-like protein; glycan mucus; Anguilla japonica; apoptosis; lectin-like protein; glycan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kwak, C.-H.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, S.-K.; Ha, S.-H.; Suh, S.-J.; Kwon, K.-M.; Chung, T.-W.; Ha, K.-T.; Chang, Y.-C.; Lee, Y.-C.; Kim, D.-S.; Chang, H.-W.; Kim, C.-H. Induction of Apoptosis and Antitumor Activity of Eel Skin Mucus, Containing Lactose-Binding Molecules, on Human Leukemic K562 Cells. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 3936-3949.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top