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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3710-3731; doi:10.3390/md13063710

Extraction, Isolation, Structural Characterization and Anti-Tumor Properties of an Apigalacturonan-Rich Polysaccharide from the Sea Grass Zostera caespitosa Miki

1
Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
2
Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Glycoscience and Glycotechnology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Trincone
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 19 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates)
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Abstract

An apigalacturonan (AGA)-rich polysaccharide, ZCMP, was isolated from the sea grass Zostera caespitosa Miki. The depolymerized fragments derived from ZCMP were obtained by either acidic degradation or pectinase degradation, and their structures were characterized by electrospray ionization collision-induced-dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS2) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The average molecular weight of ZCMP was 77.2 kD and it consisted of galacturonic acid (GalA), apiosefuranose (Api), galactose (Gal), rhamnose (Rha), arabinose (Ara), xylose (Xyl), and mannose (Man), at a molar ratio of 51.4꞉15.5꞉6.0꞉11.8꞉4.2꞉4.4꞉4.2. There were two regions of AGA (70%) and rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-Ι, 30%) in ZCMP. AGA was composed of an α-1,4-D-galactopyranosyluronan backbone mainly substituted at the O-3 position by single Api residues. RG-Ι possessed a backbone of repeating disaccharide units of →4GalAα1,2Rhaα1→, with a few α-L-arabinose and β-D-galactose residues as side chains. The anti-angiogenesis assay showed that ZCMP inhibited the migratory activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs), with no influence on endothelial cells growth. ZCMP also promoted macrophage phagocytosis. These findings of the present study demonstrated the potential anti-tumor activity of ZCMP through anti-angiogenic and immunoregulatory pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zostera caespitosa Miki; apigalacturonan; oligosaccharides; ESI-CID-MS2; anti-angiogenesis; immunoregulation Zostera caespitosa Miki; apigalacturonan; oligosaccharides; ESI-CID-MS2; anti-angiogenesis; immunoregulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lv, Y.; Shan, X.; Zhao, X.; Cai, C.; Zhao, X.; Lang, Y.; Zhu, H.; Yu, G. Extraction, Isolation, Structural Characterization and Anti-Tumor Properties of an Apigalacturonan-Rich Polysaccharide from the Sea Grass Zostera caespitosa Miki. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 3710-3731.

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