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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(4), 1798-1818; doi:10.3390/md13041798

Morphological and Proteomic Analyses Reveal that Unsaturated Guluronate Oligosaccharide Modulates Multiple Functional Pathways in Murine Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells

1
College of Life Science, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Ecology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
2
College of Life Science, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Microbial Genetic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
3
National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
4
Division of Physiological Chemistry 2, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 17177, Sweden
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Laurienzo
Received: 5 February 2015 / Revised: 15 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 March 2015 / Published: 30 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Polysaccharides)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1375 KB, uploaded 30 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Alginate is a natural polysaccharide extracted from various species of marine brown algae. Alginate-derived guluronate oligosaccharide (GOS) obtained by enzymatic depolymerization has various pharmacological functions. Previous studies have demonstrated that GOS can trigger the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by macrophages and that it is involved in the nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. To expand upon the current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms associated with the GOS-induced immune response in macrophages, comparative proteomic analysis was employed together with two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) and Western blot verification. Proteins showing significant differences in expression in GOS-treated cells were categorized into multiple functional pathways, including the NF-κB signaling pathway and pathways involved in inflammation, antioxidant activity, glycolysis, cytoskeletal processes and translational elongation. Moreover, GOS-stimulated changes in the morphologies and actin cytoskeleton organization of RAW264.7 cells were also investigated as possible adaptations to GOS. This study is the first to reveal GOS as a promising agent that can modulate the proper balance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses, and it provides new insights into pharmaceutical applications of polysaccharides. View Full-Text
Keywords: guluronate oligosaccharide; macrophage activation; nuclear factor-κB; anti-inflammation; antioxidant; cell morphology guluronate oligosaccharide; macrophage activation; nuclear factor-κB; anti-inflammation; antioxidant; cell morphology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, X.; Bi, D.-C.; Li, C.; Fang, W.-S.; Zhou, R.; Li, S.-M.; Chi, L.-L.; Wan, M.; Shen, L.-M. Morphological and Proteomic Analyses Reveal that Unsaturated Guluronate Oligosaccharide Modulates Multiple Functional Pathways in Murine Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 1798-1818.

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