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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(2), 713-726; doi:10.3390/md13020713

Antitumor and Antimicrobial Potential of Bromoditerpenes Isolated from the Red Alga, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius

1
Marine Resources Research Group (GIRM), ESTM, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, 2520-641 Peniche, Portugal
2
Nice Institute of Chemistry-PCRE, UMR 7272 CNRS, University de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, France
3
MAPIEM, EA 4323, Université de Toulon, 83957 La Garde, France
4
Mediterranean Institute of Biodiversity and Ecology, Marine and Continental, Rue de la Batterie des Lions, 13007 Marseille, France
5
Centre of Pharmacology and Chemical Biopathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vassilios Roussis
Received: 16 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 26 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Halogenated Metabolites of Marine Origin)
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Abstract

Cancer and infectious diseases continue to be a major public health problem, and new drugs are necessary. As marine organisms are well known to provide a wide range of original compounds, the aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the main constituents of the cosmopolitan red alga, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius. The structure of several bromoditerpenes was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Five molecules were isolated and characterized which include a new brominated diterpene belonging to the rare dactylomelane family and named sphaerodactylomelol (1), along with four already known sphaerane bromoditerpenes (25). Antitumor activity was assessed by cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative assays on an in vitro model of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2 cells). Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against four pathogenic microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Compound 4 exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (IC50 6.35 µM) and compound 5 the highest anti-proliferative activity on HepG-2 cells (IC50 42.9 µM). The new diterpene, sphaerodactylomelol (1), induced inhibition of cell proliferation (IC50 280 µM) and cytotoxicity (IC50 720 µM) on HepG-2 cells and showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (IC50 96.3 µM). View Full-Text
Keywords: red algae; Sphaerococcus; diterpenes; sphaerane; dactylomelane; HepG-2; pathogenic microorganisms red algae; Sphaerococcus; diterpenes; sphaerane; dactylomelane; HepG-2; pathogenic microorganisms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodrigues, D.; Alves, C.; Horta, A.; Pinteus, S.; Silva, J.; Culioli, G.; Thomas, O.P.; Pedrosa, R. Antitumor and Antimicrobial Potential of Bromoditerpenes Isolated from the Red Alga, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 713-726.

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