Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(7), 4126-4147; doi:10.3390/md12074126
Article

Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features

1,* , 1,2
, 1,3
 and 1,4
Received: 4 May 2014; in revised form: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 9 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [891 KB, uploaded 9 July 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide), a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2-) units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments.
Keywords: lipopolysaccharide; lipid A; lipid structure; mass spectrometry; psychrophile lipopolysaccharide; lipid A; lipid structure; mass spectrometry; psychrophile
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Sweet, C.R.; Alpuche, G.M.; Landis, C.A.; Sandman, B.C. Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 4126-4147.

AMA Style

Sweet CR, Alpuche GM, Landis CA, Sandman BC. Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(7):4126-4147.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sweet, Charles R.; Alpuche, Giancarlo M.; Landis, Corinne A.; Sandman, Benjamin C. 2014. "Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 7: 4126-4147.



Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert