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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(7), 4126-4147; doi:10.3390/md12074126
Article

Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features

1,* , 1,2
,
1,3
 and
1,4
1 Chemistry Department, 572M Holloway Road, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402, USA 2 Belize Defense Force, Belize City P.O. Box 141, Belize 3 Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA 4 US Navy SUBASE NL, Box 44, Groton, CT 06349, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 9 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Toxins)
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Abstract

Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide), a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2-) units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments.
Keywords: lipopolysaccharide; lipid A; lipid structure; mass spectrometry; psychrophile lipopolysaccharide; lipid A; lipid structure; mass spectrometry; psychrophile
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Sweet, C.R.; Alpuche, G.M.; Landis, C.A.; Sandman, B.C. Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 4126-4147.

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