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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(6), 1878-1898; doi:10.3390/md11061878

Subtilomycin: A New Lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis Strain MMA7 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona simulans

Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Biomerit Research Centre, Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland
Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Marine Biotechnology Centre, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 April 2013 / Revised: 13 May 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 3 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Peptides and Their Mimetics)
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Bacteriocins are attracting increased attention as an alternative to classic antibiotics in the fight against infectious disease and multidrug resistant pathogens. Bacillus subtilis strain MMA7 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans displays a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, as well as several pathogenic Candida species. This activity is in part associated with a newly identified lantibiotic, herein named as subtilomycin. The proposed biosynthetic cluster is composed of six genes, including protein-coding genes for LanB-like dehydratase and LanC-like cyclase modification enzymes, characteristic of the class I lantibiotics. The subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster in B. subtilis strain MMA7 is found in place of the sporulation killing factor (skf) operon, reported in many B. subtilis isolates and involved in a bacterial cannibalistic behaviour intended to delay sporulation. The presence of the subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster appears to be widespread amongst B. subtilis strains isolated from different shallow and deep water marine sponges. Subtilomycin possesses several desirable industrial and pharmaceutical physicochemical properties, including activity over a wide pH range, thermal resistance and water solubility. Additionally, the production of the lantibiotic subtilomycin could be a desirable property should B. subtilis strain MMA7 be employed as a probiotic in aquaculture applications.
Keywords: antimicrobial; subtilomycin; lantibiotic; marine sponge; Bacillus subtilis antimicrobial; subtilomycin; lantibiotic; marine sponge; Bacillus subtilis

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Phelan, R.W.; Barret, M.; Cotter, P.D.; O'Connor, P.M.; Chen, R.; Morrissey, J.P.; Dobson, A.D.W.; O'Gara, F.; Barbosa, T.M. Subtilomycin: A New Lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis Strain MMA7 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona simulans. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1878-1898.

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