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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(6), 1866-1877; doi:10.3390/md11061866
Article

Self-Association of Okadaic Acid: Structural and Pharmacological Significance

1,2
,
1,3
,
4
,
1,3,*  and 1,5,*
1 University Institute for Bio-Organic Chemistry "Antonio González" (IUBO), University of La Laguna (ULL), Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain 2 Pharma Mar, Avda. de los Reyes, 1 P.I. La Mina-Norte, Colmenar Viejo, Madrid 28770, Spain 3 Department of Organic Chemistry, University of La Laguna (ULL), Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 1, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain 4 Department of Physical Chemistry, University Institute of Materials and Nanotechnology, University of La Laguna (ULL), Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 1, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain 5 Department of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of La Laguna (ULL), Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 1, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 March 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Okadaic Acid and Dinophysis Toxins)
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Abstract

Okadaic acid (OA) has been an invaluable pharmacological tool in the study of cellular signaling. The great affinity of this polyether for its targets together with its high specificity to inhibit certain protein phosphatases enables the differential study of these proteins. Crystallographic structures of protein phosphatases in complex with OA show a 1:1 protein to toxin ratio. Nevertheless, it has been found that OA is able to self-associate under certain conditions although very little is known about the importance of this phenomenon. Here we review the available knowledge on the latter topic and we report on the existence of an unusual self-associated tetrameric form. The structure of these oligomers is proposed based on spectroscopic data and molecular modeling calculations.
Keywords: okadaic acid; protein phosphatase; nuclear magnetic resonance; scanning tunneling microscopy okadaic acid; protein phosphatase; nuclear magnetic resonance; scanning tunneling microscopy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Cruz, P.G.; Norte, M.; Creus, A.H.; Fernández, J.J.; Daranas, A.H. Self-Association of Okadaic Acid: Structural and Pharmacological Significance. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1866-1877.

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