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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(3), 747-774; doi:10.3390/md11030747

Chondroitin Sulfate, Hyaluronic Acid and Chitin/Chitosan Production Using Marine Waste Sources: Characteristics, Applications and Eco-Friendly Processes: A Review

1
Group of Recycling and Valorisation of Waste Materials (REVAL), Marine Research Institute (IIM-CSIC), r/Eduardo Cabello, 6. Vigo, Galicia 36208, Spain
2
Research Centre of Vine and Wine Related Science (ICVV-CSIC), Scientific and Technical Complex of the University of La Rioja, Logroño 26006, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2012 / Revised: 28 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides)
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Abstract

In the last decade, an increasing number of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chitin and chitosan applications have been reported. Their commercial demands have been extended to different markets, such as cosmetics, medicine, biotechnology, food and textiles. Marine wastes from fisheries and aquaculture are susceptible sources for polymers but optimized processes for their recovery and production must be developed to satisfy such necessities. In the present work, we have reviewed different alternatives reported in the literature to produce and purify chondroitin sulfate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitin/chitosan (CH/CHs) with the aim of proposing environmentally friendly processes by combination of various microbial, chemical, enzymatic and membranes strategies and technologies.
Keywords: glycosaminoglycans; by-products upgrading; chondroitin sulphate; hyaluronic acid; chitin and chitosan; eco-friendly processes; clean production glycosaminoglycans; by-products upgrading; chondroitin sulphate; hyaluronic acid; chitin and chitosan; eco-friendly processes; clean production
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vázquez, J.A.; Rodríguez-Amado, I.; Montemayor, M.I.; Fraguas, J.; González, M.P.; Murado, M.A. Chondroitin Sulfate, Hyaluronic Acid and Chitin/Chitosan Production Using Marine Waste Sources: Characteristics, Applications and Eco-Friendly Processes: A Review. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 747-774.

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