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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(1), 99-113; doi:10.3390/md11010099
Article

Soft Coral-Derived Lemnalol Alleviates Monosodium Urate-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats by Inhibiting Leukocyte Infiltration and iNOS, COX-2 and c-Fos Protein Expression

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1 Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan 2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ping-Tung Christian Hospital, 60, Ta-Lian Road, Ping-Tung 90059, Taiwan 3 Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Center of Excellence for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan 4 Department of Life Science, Institute of Molecular Biology, National Chung-Cheng University, Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2012 / Revised: 21 December 2012 / Accepted: 26 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Inflammation)
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Abstract

An acute gout attack manifests in the joint as dramatic inflammation. To date, the clinical use of medicinal agents has typically led to undesirable side effects. Numerous efforts have failed to create an effective and safe agent for the treatment of gout. Lemnalol — an extract from Formosan soft coral — has documented anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. In the present study, we attempt to examine the therapeutic effects of lemnalol on intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty arthritis in rats. In the present study, we found that treatment with lemnalol (intramuscular [im]), but not colchicine (oral [po]), significantly attenuated MUS-induced mechanical allodynia, paw edema and knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the elevated expression of c-Fos and pro-inflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) observed in synovial tissue, were significantly inhibited by treatment with lemnalol. We conclude that lemnalol may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and other acute neutrophil-driven inflammatory diseases.
Keywords: gout; lemnalol; monosodium urate; allodynia; inflammation gout; lemnalol; monosodium urate; allodynia; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Lee, H.-P.; Huang, S.-Y.; Lin, Y.-Y.; Wang, H.-M.; Jean, Y.-H.; Wu, S.-F.; Duh, C.-Y.; Wen, Z.-H. Soft Coral-Derived Lemnalol Alleviates Monosodium Urate-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats by Inhibiting Leukocyte Infiltration and iNOS, COX-2 and c-Fos Protein Expression. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 99-113.

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