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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(8), 1784-1798; doi:10.3390/md10081784
Article

Scavenging Capacity of Marine Carotenoids against Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in a Membrane-Mimicking System

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Received: 5 May 2012; in revised form: 7 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
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Abstract: Carotenoid intake has been associated with the decrease of the incidence of some chronic diseases by minimizing the in vivo oxidative damages induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS). The carotenoids are well-known singlet oxygen quenchers; however, their capacity to scavenge other reactive species, such as peroxyl radical (ROO), hydroxyl radical (HO), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and anion peroxynitrite (ONOO), still needs to be more extensively studied, especially using membrane-mimicking systems, such as liposomes. Moreover, the identification of carotenoids possessing high antioxidant capacity can lead to new alternatives of drugs or nutritional supplements for prophylaxis or therapy of pathological conditions related to oxidative damages, such as cardiovascular diseases. The capacity to scavenge ROO, HO, HOCl and ONOO of seven carotenoids found in marine organisms was determined in liposomes based on the fluorescence loss of a fluorescent lipid (C11-BODIPY581/591) due to its oxidation by these reactive species. The carotenoid-bearing hydroxyl groups were generally more potent ROS scavengers than the carotenes, whilst β-carotene was the most efficient ONOO scavenger. The role of astaxanthin as an antioxidant should be highlighted, since it was a more potent scavenger of ROO, HOCl and ONOO than α-tocopherol.
Keywords: liposomes; astaxanthin; carotenoids; ROS; RNS liposomes; astaxanthin; carotenoids; ROS; RNS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodrigues, E.; Mariutti, L.R.B.; Mercadante, A.Z. Scavenging Capacity of Marine Carotenoids against Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in a Membrane-Mimicking System. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 1784-1798.

AMA Style

Rodrigues E, Mariutti LRB, Mercadante AZ. Scavenging Capacity of Marine Carotenoids against Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in a Membrane-Mimicking System. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(8):1784-1798.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodrigues, Eliseu; Mariutti, Lilian R. B.; Mercadante, Adriana Z. 2012. "Scavenging Capacity of Marine Carotenoids against Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in a Membrane-Mimicking System." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 8: 1784-1798.



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