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Pigmentation and Spectral Absorbance Signatures in Deep-Water Corals from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway
Trondheim Biological Station, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
Department of Bio-Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Sem Sælands vei 8, Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim NO-7485, Norway
The University Centre on Svalbard (UNIS), P.O. Box 156, Longyearbyen NO-9171, Norway
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 April 2012; in revised form: 23 May 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
Abstract: The pigmentation and corresponding in vivo and in vitro absorption characteristics in three different deep-water coral species: white and orange Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, collected from the Trondheimsfjord are described. Pigments were isolated and characterized by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LC-TOF MS). The main carotenoids identified for all three coral species were astaxanthin and a canthaxanthin-like carotenoid. Soft tissue and skeleton of orange L. pertusa contained 2 times more astaxanthin g−1 wet weight compared to white L. pertusa. White and orange L. pertusa were characterized with in vivo absorbance peaks at 409 and 473 nm, respectively. In vivo absorbance maxima for P. arborea and P. resedaeformis was typically at 475 nm. The shapes of the absorbance spectra (400–700 nm) were species-specific, indicated by in vivo, in vitro and the corresponding difference spectra. The results may provide important chemotaxonomic information for pigment when bonded to their proteins in vivo, bio-prospecting, and for in situ identification, mapping and monitoring of corals.
Keywords: astaxanthin; canthaxanthin; optical characteristics; Lophelia pertusa; Paragorgia arborea; Primnoa resedaeformis
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MDPI and ACS Style
Elde, A.C.; Pettersen, R.; Bruheim, P.; Järnegren, J.; Johnsen, G. Pigmentation and Spectral Absorbance Signatures in Deep-Water Corals from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 1400-1411.
Elde AC, Pettersen R, Bruheim P, Järnegren J, Johnsen G. Pigmentation and Spectral Absorbance Signatures in Deep-Water Corals from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(6):1400-1411.
Elde, Anette C.; Pettersen, Ragnhild; Bruheim, Per; Järnegren, Johanna; Johnsen, Geir. 2012. "Pigmentation and Spectral Absorbance Signatures in Deep-Water Corals from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 6: 1400-1411.