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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4310-4330; doi:10.3390/md13074310

Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin

Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu Province, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
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Abstract

Astaxanthin (ATX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; cancer; molecular targets astaxanthin; cancer; molecular targets
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, L.; Wang, H. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 4310-4330.

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