Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(2), 329-339; doi:10.3390/md10020329

Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus

1,2,* email, 3,4email, 1email, 4email, 1email, 2email and 1,†
Received: 19 December 2011; in revised form: 14 January 2012 / Accepted: 18 January 2012 / Published: 3 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic ( < 1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions.
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; toxicity; cultured puffer fish; Sphoeroides annulatus; food safety
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nuñez-Vazquez, E.J.; Garcia-Ortega, A.; Campa-Cordova, A.I.; de la Parra, I.A.; Ibarra-Martinez, L.; Heredia-Tapia, A.; Ochoa, J.L. Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 329-339.

AMA Style

Nuñez-Vazquez EJ, Garcia-Ortega A, Campa-Cordova AI, de la Parra IA, Ibarra-Martinez L, Heredia-Tapia A, Ochoa JL. Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus. Marine Drugs. 2012; 10(2):329-339.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nuñez-Vazquez, Erick J.; Garcia-Ortega, Armando; Campa-Cordova, Angel I.; de la Parra, Isabel Abdo; Ibarra-Martinez, Lilia; Heredia-Tapia, Alejandra; Ochoa, Jose L. 2012. "Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus." Mar. Drugs 10, no. 2: 329-339.

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