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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(2), 329-339; doi:10.3390/md10020329
Article

Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus

1,2,* , 3,4
,
1
,
4
,
1
,
2
 and
1,†
1 Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR), Apdo. Postal 128, La Paz, B.C.S. 23000, Mexico 2 Investigacion para la Conservacion y el Desarrollo (INCODE), Andador 2, 245. Col. Banobras. La Paz, B.C.S. 23080, Mexico 3 College of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resource Management, Pacific Aquaculture & Coastal Resources Center, University of Hawaii at Hilo, 200 W. Kawili St., Hilo, HI 96720, USA 4 Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo (CIAD), Unidad Mazatlan. Apdo. Postal 711, C.P. 82010. Mazatlan, Sinaloa 82010, Mexico Deceased in November 2007.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 14 January 2012 / Accepted: 18 January 2012 / Published: 3 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
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Abstract

The toxin content in various life cycle stages of tank-cultivated bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus) were analyzed by mouse bioassay and ESI-MS spectrometry analysis. The presence of toxin content was determined in extracts of sperm, eggs, embryo, larvae, post-larvae, juvenile, pre-adult, and adult fish, as well as in food items used during the cultivation of the species. Our findings show that only the muscle of juveniles, the viscera of pre-adults, and muscle, liver, and gonad of adult specimens were slightly toxic ( < 1 mouse unit). Thus, cultivated S. annulatus, as occurs with other cultivated puffer fish species, does not represent a food safety risk to consumers. This is the first report of toxin analysis covering the complete life stages of a puffer fish under controlled conditions.
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; toxicity; cultured puffer fish; Sphoeroides annulatus; food safety tetrodotoxin; toxicity; cultured puffer fish; Sphoeroides annulatus; food safety
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Nuñez-Vazquez, E.J.; Garcia-Ortega, A.; Campa-Cordova, A.I.; de la Parra, I.A.; Ibarra-Martinez, L.; Heredia-Tapia, A.; Ochoa, J.L. Toxicity of Cultured Bullseye Puffer Fish Sphoeroides annulatus. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 329-339.

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