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Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(12), 2618-2633; doi:10.3390/md10122618
Article

A Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Prevents Naproxen-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage in Rats

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Received: 26 September 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 18 October 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
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Abstract

Red seaweeds synthesize a great variety of sulfated galactans. Sulfated polysaccharides (PLSs) from seaweed are comprised of substances with pharmaceutical and biomedical potential. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the PLS fraction extracted from the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in rats with naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (control group—vehicle) or PLS (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) twice daily (at 09:00 and 21:00) for 2 days. After 1 h, naproxen (80 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered. The rats were killed on day two, 4 h after naproxen treatment. The stomachs were promptly excised, opened along the greater curvature, and measured using digital calipers. Furthermore, the guts of the animals were removed, and a 5-cm portion of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) was used for the evaluation of macroscopic scores. Samples of the stomach and the small intestine were used for histological evaluation, morphometric analysis and in assays for glutathione (GSH) levels, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. PLS treatment reduced the macroscopic and microscopic naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the PLS fraction has a protective effect against gastrointestinal damage through mechanisms that involve the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration and lipid peroxidation.
Keywords: sulfated polysaccharide; gastrointestinal damage; naproxen; antioxidant activity sulfated polysaccharide; gastrointestinal damage; naproxen; antioxidant activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Silva, R.O.; Santana, A.P.M.; Carvalho, N.S.; Bezerra, T.S.; Oliveira, C.B.; Damasceno, S.R.B.; Chaves, L.S.; Freitas, A.L.P.; Soares, P.M.G.; Souza, M.H.L.P.; Barbosa, A.L.R.; Medeiros, J.-V.R. A Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Prevents Naproxen-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage in Rats. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 2618-2633.

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