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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(2), 489-503; doi:10.3390/md11020489
Article

Sources of Secondary Metabolite Variation in Dysidea avara (Porifera: Demospongiae): The Importance of Having Good Neighbors

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Received: 29 November 2012; in revised form: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 24 January 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
Download PDF [755 KB, updated 21 February 2013; original version uploaded 18 February 2013]
Abstract: Several studies report temporal, geographical, and intra-individual variation in sponge metabolite yields. However, the internal and/or external factors that regulate the metabolite production remain poorly understood. Dysidea avara is a demosponge that produces sesquiterpenoids (avarol and derivatives) with interesting medical properties, which has prompted addressed studies to obtain enough amounts of these metabolites for research on drug discovery. Within this framework, specimens of Dysidea avara from a population of the Northwest Mediterranean were sampled and their secondary metabolites quantified to assess their variability and the possible relationship with external (seasonality, interactions with neighbors) and internal (reproductive stages) factors. The results show a variation of the amount of both avarol and its monoacetate derivative with time, with no clear relationship with seawater temperature. A trade-off with sponge reproduction was not found either. However, our results showed for the first time that sponges are able to increase production or accumulation of secondary metabolites in their peripheral zone depending on the nature of their neighbors. This finding could explain part of the high variability in the amount of secondary metabolites usually found in chemical ecology studies on sponges and opens new biotechnological approaches to enhance the metabolite yield in sponge cultures.
Keywords: secondary metabolites; chemical ecology; sponges; temporal variation; intra-individual variation secondary metabolites; chemical ecology; sponges; temporal variation; intra-individual variation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

De Caralt, S.; Bry, D.; Bontemps, N.; Turon, X.; Uriz, M.-J.; Banaigs, B. Sources of Secondary Metabolite Variation in Dysidea avara (Porifera: Demospongiae): The Importance of Having Good Neighbors. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 489-503.

AMA Style

De Caralt S, Bry D, Bontemps N, Turon X, Uriz M-J, Banaigs B. Sources of Secondary Metabolite Variation in Dysidea avara (Porifera: Demospongiae): The Importance of Having Good Neighbors. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(2):489-503.

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Caralt, Sonia; Bry, Delphine; Bontemps, Nataly; Turon, Xavier; Uriz, Maria-Jesus; Banaigs, Bernard. 2013. "Sources of Secondary Metabolite Variation in Dysidea avara (Porifera: Demospongiae): The Importance of Having Good Neighbors." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 2: 489-503.


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