Next Article in Journal
Xyloketal B Exhibits Its Antioxidant Activity through Induction of HO-1 in Vascular Endothelial Cells and Zebrafish
Next Article in Special Issue
Probing a Coral Genome for Components of the Photoprotective Scytonemin Biosynthetic Pathway and the 2-Aminoethylphosphonate Pathway
Previous Article in Journal
Cloning, Characterization and Heterologous Expression of the Indolocarbazole Biosynthetic Gene Cluster from Marine-Derived Streptomyces sanyensis FMA
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Sulfated-Polysaccharide Fraction from Seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Prevents Naproxen-Induced Gastrointestinal Damage in Rats
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(2), 489-503; doi:10.3390/md11020489

Sources of Secondary Metabolite Variation in Dysidea avara (Porifera: Demospongiae): The Importance of Having Good Neighbors

Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Accés a la Cala St Francesc 14, 17300 Blanes, Girona, Spain
Environmental and Biomolecular Chemistry Laboratory, University of Perpignan Via Domita, 52 Paul Alduy Ave., Perpignan Cedex 66860, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 24 January 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [755 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  


Several studies report temporal, geographical, and intra-individual variation in sponge metabolite yields. However, the internal and/or external factors that regulate the metabolite production remain poorly understood. Dysidea avara is a demosponge that produces sesquiterpenoids (avarol and derivatives) with interesting medical properties, which has prompted addressed studies to obtain enough amounts of these metabolites for research on drug discovery. Within this framework, specimens of Dysidea avara from a population of the Northwest Mediterranean were sampled and their secondary metabolites quantified to assess their variability and the possible relationship with external (seasonality, interactions with neighbors) and internal (reproductive stages) factors. The results show a variation of the amount of both avarol and its monoacetate derivative with time, with no clear relationship with seawater temperature. A trade-off with sponge reproduction was not found either. However, our results showed for the first time that sponges are able to increase production or accumulation of secondary metabolites in their peripheral zone depending on the nature of their neighbors. This finding could explain part of the high variability in the amount of secondary metabolites usually found in chemical ecology studies on sponges and opens new biotechnological approaches to enhance the metabolite yield in sponge cultures. View Full-Text
Keywords: secondary metabolites; chemical ecology; sponges; temporal variation; intra-individual variation secondary metabolites; chemical ecology; sponges; temporal variation; intra-individual variation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary materials

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

De Caralt, S.; Bry, D.; Bontemps, N.; Turon, X.; Uriz, M.-J.; Banaigs, B. Sources of Secondary Metabolite Variation in Dysidea avara (Porifera: Demospongiae): The Importance of Having Good Neighbors. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 489-503.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top