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The Use of Central Nervous System Active Drugs During Pregnancy
Tornblad Institute, Lund University, Biskopsgatan 7, Lund SE-223 62, Sweden
Department of Statistics, Monitoring and Analyses, National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm SE-106 30, Sweden
Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 85, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2013; in revised form: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 25 September 2013 / Published: 10 October 2013
Abstract: CNS-active drugs are used relatively often during pregnancy. Use during early pregnancy may increase the risk of a congenital malformation; use during the later part of pregnancy may be associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth disturbances and neonatal morbidity. There is also a possibility that drug exposure can affect brain development with long-term neuropsychological harm as a result. This paper summarizes the literature on such drugs used during pregnancy: opioids, anticonvulsants, drugs used for Parkinson’s disease, neuroleptics, sedatives and hypnotics, antidepressants, psychostimulants, and some other CNS-active drugs. In addition to an overview of the literature, data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1996–2011) are presented. The exposure data are either based on midwife interviews towards the end of the first trimester or on linkage with a prescribed drug register. An association between malformations and maternal use of anticonvulsants and notably valproic acid is well known from the literature and also demonstrated in the present study. Some other associations between drug exposure and outcome were found.
Keywords: CNS active drugs; opioids; sedatives; hypnotics; antidepressants; psychostimulants; congenital malformations; neonatal morbidity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Källén, B.; Borg, N.; Reis, M. The Use of Central Nervous System Active Drugs During Pregnancy. Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6, 1221-1286.
Källén B, Borg N, Reis M. The Use of Central Nervous System Active Drugs During Pregnancy. Pharmaceuticals. 2013; 6(10):1221-1286.
Källén, Bengt; Borg, Natalia; Reis, Margareta. 2013. "The Use of Central Nervous System Active Drugs During Pregnancy." Pharmaceuticals 6, no. 10: 1221-1286.