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Bioequivalence of Two Intravenous Artesunate Products with Its Active Metabolite Following Single and Multiple Injections
Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2010; in revised form: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 5 January 2011 / Published: 7 January 2011
Abstract: In animal species and humans, artesunate (AS) undergoes extensive and complex biotransformation to an active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The bioequivalence of two intravenous AS pharmaceutical products with 5% NaHCO3 (China Formulation) or 0.3 M PBS (WRAIR Formulation) was determined in rats in a two-formulation, two-period, and two-sequence crossover experimental design. Following single and multiple intravenous administrations, a series of blood samples was collected by using an automated blood sampler and drug concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The 90% CI of the difference between the two intravenous formulations was contained within 80–125% of the geometric mean of pharmacokinetic parameters for AS and DHA in all animals dosed. Hematological effects were studied on days 1 and 3 after the final dosing, and a rapidly reversible hematological toxicity (significant reductions in reticulocyte levels) was seen in the peripheral blood of the rats treated with each formulation. The results showed that bioequivalence with the parent compound and active metabolite was fulfilled in the 82.3–117.7% ranges of all parameters (AUC0–t, Cmax, concentration average and degree of fluctuation) in the two-period and two-sequence crossover studies following single and repeated intravenous injections. For the metabolite, the equivalence was satisfied in most pharmacokinetic parameters tested due to the variability in the hydrolysis rate of AS to DHA. The WRAIR formulation of AS was considered to be bioequivalent to the Chinese formulation at steady-state according to the total drug exposure, in terms of both parent drug and active metabolite, rapidly reversal in reticulocyte decline, and extension of single and multiple administrations. Therefore, the parent drug and active metabolites should play similar important roles in the determination of efficacy and safety of the drug.
Keywords: intravenous artesunate; dihydroartemisinin; bioequivalence; bioavailability; rats
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Li, Q.; Xie, L.; Melendez, V.; Weina, P. Bioequivalence of Two Intravenous Artesunate Products with Its Active Metabolite Following Single and Multiple Injections. Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4, 138-153.
Li Q, Xie L, Melendez V, Weina P. Bioequivalence of Two Intravenous Artesunate Products with Its Active Metabolite Following Single and Multiple Injections. Pharmaceuticals. 2011; 4(1):138-153.
Li, Qigui; Xie, Lisa; Melendez, Victor; Weina, Peter. 2011. "Bioequivalence of Two Intravenous Artesunate Products with Its Active Metabolite Following Single and Multiple Injections." Pharmaceuticals 4, no. 1: 138-153.