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Exenatide Use in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes and Endocrinology Department, Whinney Heys Road, Blackpool Victoria Hospital, FY38NR, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2010; in revised form: 5 August 2010 / Accepted: 9 August 2010 / Published: 11 August 2010
Abstract: Exenatide is a GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) agonist that has been approved in the UK for use in the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) since 2006. It acts by increasing glucose-induced insulin release and by reducing glucagon secretion postprandially. It therefore increases insulin secretion and reduces glucose levels, especially postprandially. It also reduces gastric emptying and acts centrally to promote satiety. In clinical practice it reduces HbA1c (range; -0.4% to -1.3%), fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels and is the only antidiabetic agent (together with liraglutide; a human GLP-1 analogue) to promote weight loss (range; -1.5 kg to -5.5 kg). It can be used as monotherapy or in combination with metformin and/or sulphonylureas (SU) and/or thiazolinediones (TZD). When compared with insulin it causes similar reductions in HbA1c and glucose levels, but unlike insulin it has the advantage of inducing weight loss. Its main side effect is gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances; nausea is the commonest GI adverse effect, albeit usually mild and transient. Hypoglycaemia is uncommon, especially when used as monotherapy or in combination with metformin. In this review article we scrutinize the currently available evidence for use of exenatide in the management of T2DM.
Keywords: diabetes; exenatide; glycaemic control; incretin mimetics; efficacy; adverse events
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kyriacou, A.; Ahmed, A.B. Exenatide Use in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 2554-2567.
Kyriacou A, Ahmed AB. Exenatide Use in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Pharmaceuticals. 2010; 3(8):2554-2567.
Kyriacou, Angelos; Ahmed, Abu Baker. 2010. "Exenatide Use in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 8: 2554-2567.