Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(5), 1637-1651; doi:10.3390/ph3051637

Beyond Genetics—Stratified and Personalised Medicines Using Multiple Parameters

1,* email and 2email
Received: 7 May 2010; Accepted: 24 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Prescribers have been practicing stratified medicine for many years. Patient characteristics, usually non-genetic, including age, comorbidities and concomitant medications are taken into account when deciding which drug to prescribe. In addition, the majority of drugs require dose adjustments across patient subgroups, usually determined by non-genetic differences between the subgroups. Whilst pharmacogenetics hold promise for enhancing treatment stratification and even treatment individualisation, non-genetic factors will continue to be very important. Both non-genetic and genetic factors must be considered to improve understanding and quantification of the variability in treatment outcomes and to guide stratification and targeting of patient subgroups to the right drug and also to the right range of doses within that subgroup. Development of stratified medicines must consider non-genetic as well as genetic factors and, where appropriate, include stratification through optimising the dose for each patient or subgroup as well as by choosing the drug most likely to deliver efficacy to that patient or group.
Keywords: pharmacogenetics; modeling; response variability; dose-finding
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peck, R.; Smith, P. Beyond Genetics—Stratified and Personalised Medicines Using Multiple Parameters. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 1637-1651.

AMA Style

Peck R, Smith P. Beyond Genetics—Stratified and Personalised Medicines Using Multiple Parameters. Pharmaceuticals. 2010; 3(5):1637-1651.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peck, Richard; Smith, Patrick. 2010. "Beyond Genetics—Stratified and Personalised Medicines Using Multiple Parameters." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 5: 1637-1651.

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