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Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(11), 3371-3416; doi:10.3390/ph3113371

Nanomedicine Faces Barriers

1,*  and 2
1 Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Innsbruck Medical University, Müllerstrasse 59, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria 2 Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2010 / Revised: 5 October 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 28 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroactive Compounds)
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Targeted nanoparticles have the potential to improve drug delivery efficiencies by more than two orders of magnitude, from the ~ 0.1% which is common today. Most pharmacologically agents on the market today are small drug molecules, which diffuse across the body’s blood-tissue barriers and distribute not only into the lesion, but into almost all organs. Drug actions in the non-lesion organs are an inescapable part of the drug delivery principle, causing “side-effects” which limit the maximally tolerable doses and result in inadequate therapy of many lesions. Nanoparticles only cross barriers by design, so side-effects are not built into their mode of operation. Delivery rates of almost 90% have been reported. This review examines the significance of these statements and checks how far they need qualification. What type of targeting is required? Is a single targeting sufficient? What new types of clinical challenge, such as immunogenicity, might attend the use of targeted nanoparticles?
Keywords: nanomedicine; vascular barriers; glandular tissues; central nervous tissues; transbarrier targeting; lesion-specific targeting nanomedicine; vascular barriers; glandular tissues; central nervous tissues; transbarrier targeting; lesion-specific targeting
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Debbage, P.; Thurner, G.C. Nanomedicine Faces Barriers. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 3371-3416.

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