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Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(11), 3371-3416; doi:10.3390/ph3113371
Review

Nanomedicine Faces Barriers

1,*  and 2
1 Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Innsbruck Medical University, Müllerstrasse 59, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria 2 Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2010 / Revised: 5 October 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 28 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroactive Compounds)
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Abstract

Targeted nanoparticles have the potential to improve drug delivery efficiencies by more than two orders of magnitude, from the ~ 0.1% which is common today. Most pharmacologically agents on the market today are small drug molecules, which diffuse across the body’s blood-tissue barriers and distribute not only into the lesion, but into almost all organs. Drug actions in the non-lesion organs are an inescapable part of the drug delivery principle, causing “side-effects” which limit the maximally tolerable doses and result in inadequate therapy of many lesions. Nanoparticles only cross barriers by design, so side-effects are not built into their mode of operation. Delivery rates of almost 90% have been reported. This review examines the significance of these statements and checks how far they need qualification. What type of targeting is required? Is a single targeting sufficient? What new types of clinical challenge, such as immunogenicity, might attend the use of targeted nanoparticles?
Keywords: nanomedicine; vascular barriers; glandular tissues; central nervous tissues; transbarrier targeting; lesion-specific targeting nanomedicine; vascular barriers; glandular tissues; central nervous tissues; transbarrier targeting; lesion-specific targeting
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Debbage, P.; Thurner, G.C. Nanomedicine Faces Barriers. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 3371-3416.

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