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Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6119-6130; doi:10.3390/s90806119
Article

Distortion of Near-Surface Seawater Temperature Structure by a Moored-Buoy Hull and Its Effect on Skin Temperature and Heat Flux Estimates

1,* , 1
 and 2
1 Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima-Cho, Yokosuka, 237-0061, Japan 2 Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2009 / Revised: 27 July 2009 / Accepted: 29 July 2009 / Published: 31 July 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan)
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Abstract

Previous studies have suggested that the accuracy of temperature measurements by surface-moored buoys may be affected by distortions of the near-surface temperature structure by the buoy hull on calm, sunny days. We obtained the first definite observational evidence that the temperature near the hull was not horizontally homogeneous at the same nominal depth. We observed large temperature differences of 1.0 K or more between thermometers at 0.2 m depth. The distortion of the surface temperature field yielded an error in estimates of daytime net surface heat flux up to more than 30 Wm2.
Keywords: moored buoy; sea surface temperature; diurnal warming; heat flux moored buoy; sea surface temperature; diurnal warming; heat flux
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kawai, Y.; Ando, K.; Kawamura, H. Distortion of Near-Surface Seawater Temperature Structure by a Moored-Buoy Hull and Its Effect on Skin Temperature and Heat Flux Estimates. Sensors 2009, 9, 6119-6130.

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