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Fundamentals of in Situ Digital Camera Methodology for Water Quality Monitoring of Coast and Ocean
Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
Current address: Environmental Research Institute, North Highland College, UHI Millennium Institute, Thurso, Caithness, Scotland, KW14 7JD, UK
Laboratoire des Sciences, Appliques au Génie Civile et Côtier, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, 1 allée du parc Montary, 64600 Anglet, France
AZTI-Tecnalia, Herrera Kaia, Portu aldea z/g, 20110 Pasai (Gipuzcoa), Spain
School of Ocean Sciences, University of Wales, Menai Bridge, Gwynedd LL59 5EY, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2009; in revised form: 16 June 2009 / Accepted: 15 July 2009 / Published: 22 July 2009
Abstract: Conventional digital cameras, the Nikon Coolpix885® and the SeaLife ECOshot®, were used as in situ optical instruments for water quality monitoring. Measured response spectra showed that these digital cameras are basically three-band radiometers. The response values in the red, green and blue bands, quantified by RGB values of digital images of the water surface, were comparable to measurements of irradiance levels at red, green and cyan/blue wavelengths of water leaving light. Different systems were deployed to capture upwelling light from below the surface, while eliminating direct surface reflection. Relationships between RGB ratios of water surface images, and water quality parameters were found to be consistent with previous measurements using more traditional narrow-band radiometers. This current paper focuses on the method that was used to acquire digital images, derive RGB values and relate measurements to water quality parameters. Field measurements were obtained in Galway Bay, Ireland, and in the Southern Rockall Trough in the North Atlantic, where both yellow substance and chlorophyll concentrations were successfully assessed using the digital camera method.
Keywords: digital; camera; ocean; colour; marine; technology; advancement
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MDPI and ACS Style
Goddijn-Murphy, L.; Dailloux, D.; White, M.; Bowers, D. Fundamentals of in Situ Digital Camera Methodology for Water Quality Monitoring of Coast and Ocean. Sensors 2009, 9, 5825-5843.
Goddijn-Murphy L, Dailloux D, White M, Bowers D. Fundamentals of in Situ Digital Camera Methodology for Water Quality Monitoring of Coast and Ocean. Sensors. 2009; 9(7):5825-5843.
Goddijn-Murphy, Lonneke; Dailloux, Damien; White, Martin; Bowers, Dave. 2009. "Fundamentals of in Situ Digital Camera Methodology for Water Quality Monitoring of Coast and Ocean." Sensors 9, no. 7: 5825-5843.