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Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection
Physical Chemistry and Applied spectroscopy, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
Integrated Space Research-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
nGimat™, 5315, Peachtree Industrial Blvd., Atlanta, GA30341, USA
Centers for Integrated Nanotechnology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2009; in revised form: 13 July 2009 / Accepted: 13 July 2009 / Published: 21 July 2009
Abstract: Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic) are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc.) and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.
Keywords: planar optical waveguides; biosensors; thin film; fluorescence; immunoassay; pathogen sensor
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Mukundan, H.; Anderson, A.S.; Grace, W.K.; Grace, K.M.; Hartman, N.; Martinez, J.S.; Swanson, B.I. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection. Sensors 2009, 9, 5783-5809.
Mukundan H, Anderson AS, Grace WK, Grace KM, Hartman N, Martinez JS, Swanson BI. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection. Sensors. 2009; 9(7):5783-5809.
Mukundan, Harshini; Anderson, Aaron S.; Grace, W. Kevin; Grace, Karen M.; Hartman, Nile; Martinez, Jennifer S.; Swanson, Basil I. 2009. "Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection." Sensors 9, no. 7: 5783-5809.