Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4955-4985; doi:10.3390/s90604955
Review

Metal Oxides and Ion-Exchanging Surfaces as pH Sensors in Liquids: State-of-the-Art and Outlook

University of Applied Sciences, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring 23, D-92224 Amberg, Germany
Received: 19 May 2009; in revised form: 14 June 2009 / Accepted: 16 June 2009 / Published: 23 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Germany)
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Abstract: Novel applications of online pH determinations at temperatures from -35 °C to 130 °C in technical and biological media, which are all but ideal aqueous solutions, require new approaches to pH monitoring. The glass electrode, introduced nearly hundred years ago, and chemical sensors based on field effect transistors (ISFET) show specific drawbacks with respect to handling and long-time stability. Proton sensitive metal oxides seem to be a promising and alternative to the state-of-the-art measuring methods, and might overcome some problems of classical hydrogen electrodes and reference electrodes.
Keywords: pH sensor; platinum metal oxides; RuO2; IrO2; reference electrode; hydrogen electrode; capacitance

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kurzweil, P. Metal Oxides and Ion-Exchanging Surfaces as pH Sensors in Liquids: State-of-the-Art and Outlook. Sensors 2009, 9, 4955-4985.

AMA Style

Kurzweil P. Metal Oxides and Ion-Exchanging Surfaces as pH Sensors in Liquids: State-of-the-Art and Outlook. Sensors. 2009; 9(6):4955-4985.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kurzweil, Peter. 2009. "Metal Oxides and Ion-Exchanging Surfaces as pH Sensors in Liquids: State-of-the-Art and Outlook." Sensors 9, no. 6: 4955-4985.

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