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Acoustic Sensor Planning for Gunshot Location in National Parks: A Pareto Front Approach
Fundación Centro Tecnológico de las Telecomunicaciones de Galicia (Gradiant), Campus As Lagoas/Marcosende, Vigo, Spain
Telematics Engineering Department, University of Vigo, Spain
Information and Communications Technologies Department, Technical University of Cartagena, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2009; in revised form: 13 November 2009 / Accepted: 16 November 2009 / Published: 26 November 2009
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a solution for gunshot location in national parks. In Spain there are agencies such as SEPRONA that fight against poaching with considerable success. The DiANa project, which is endorsed by Cabañeros National Park and the SEPRONA service, proposes a system to automatically detect and locate gunshots. This work presents its technical aspects related to network design and planning. The system consists of a network of acoustic sensors that locate gunshots by hyperbolic multi-lateration estimation. The differences in sound time arrivals allow the computation of a low error estimator of gunshot location. The accuracy of this method depends on tight sensor clock synchronization, which an ad-hoc time synchronization protocol provides. On the other hand, since the areas under surveillance are wide, and electric power is scarce, it is necessary to maximize detection coverage and minimize system cost at the same time. Therefore, sensor network planning has two targets, i.e., coverage and cost. We model planning as an unconstrained problem with two objective functions. We determine a set of candidate solutions of interest by combining a derivative-free descent method we have recently proposed with a Pareto front approach. The results are clearly superior to random seeding in a realistic simulation scenario.
Keywords: acoustic sensing; sound location; sensor synchronization; sensor network planning; derivative-free optimization; Pareto front
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González-Castaño, F.J.; Vales Alonso, J.; Costa-Montenegro, E.; López-Matencio, P.; Vicente-Carrasco, F.; Parrado-García, F.J.; Gil-Castiñeira, F.; Costas-Rodríguez, S. Acoustic Sensor Planning for Gunshot Location in National Parks: A Pareto Front Approach. Sensors 2009, 9, 9493-9512.
González-Castaño FJ, Vales Alonso J, Costa-Montenegro E, López-Matencio P, Vicente-Carrasco F, Parrado-García FJ, Gil-Castiñeira F, Costas-Rodríguez S. Acoustic Sensor Planning for Gunshot Location in National Parks: A Pareto Front Approach. Sensors. 2009; 9(12):9493-9512.
González-Castaño, Francisco Javier; Vales Alonso, Javier; Costa-Montenegro, Enrique; López-Matencio, Pablo; Vicente-Carrasco, Francisco; Parrado-García, Francisco J.; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Costas-Rodríguez, Sergio. 2009. "Acoustic Sensor Planning for Gunshot Location in National Parks: A Pareto Front Approach." Sensors 9, no. 12: 9493-9512.