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Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5426-5448; doi:10.3390/s8095426
Review

Atmospheric Effects on InSAR Measurements and Their Mitigation

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Received: 28 July 2008; in revised form: 29 August 2008 / Accepted: 29 August 2008 / Published: 3 September 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR))
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Abstract: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technology for observing the Earth surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. InSAR measurements are however often significantly affected by the atmosphere as the radar signals propagate through the atmosphere whose state varies both in space and in time. Great efforts have been made in recent years to better understand the properties of the atmospheric effects and to develop methods for mitigating the effects. This paper provides a systematic review of the work carried out in this area. The basic principles of atmospheric effects on repeat-pass InSAR are first introduced. The studies on the properties of the atmospheric effects, including the magnitudes of the effects determined in the various parts of the world, the spectra of the atmospheric effects, the isotropic properties and the statistical distributions of the effects, are then discussed. The various methods developed for mitigating the atmospheric effects are then reviewed, including the methods that are based on PSInSAR processing, the methods that are based on interferogram modeling, and those that are based on external data such as GPS observations, ground meteorological data, and satellite data including those from the MODIS and MERIS. Two examples that use MODIS and MERIS data respectively to calibrate atmospheric effects on InSAR are also given.
Keywords: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR); atmospheric effects; atmospheric correction; MODIS; MERIS Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR); atmospheric effects; atmospheric correction; MODIS; MERIS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ding, X.-L.; Li, Z.-W.; Zhu, J.-J.; Feng, G.-C.; Long, J.-P. Atmospheric Effects on InSAR Measurements and Their Mitigation. Sensors 2008, 8, 5426-5448.

AMA Style

Ding X-L, Li Z-W, Zhu J-J, Feng G-C, Long J-P. Atmospheric Effects on InSAR Measurements and Their Mitigation. Sensors. 2008; 8(9):5426-5448.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ding, Xiao-li; Li, Zhi-wei; Zhu, Jian-jun; Feng, Guang-cai; Long, Jiang-ping. 2008. "Atmospheric Effects on InSAR Measurements and Their Mitigation." Sensors 8, no. 9: 5426-5448.


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