Sensors 2008, 8(8), 4636-4655; doi:10.3390/s8084636

Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays

Received: 28 February 2008; in revised form: 1 August 2008 / Accepted: 5 August 2008 / Published: 6 August 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated High-performance Imagers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Single photon detection is one of the most challenging goals of photonics. In recent years, the study of ultra-fast and/or low-intensity phenomena has received renewed attention from the academic and industrial communities. Intense research activity has been focused on bio-imaging applications, bio-luminescence, bio-scattering methods, and, more in general, on several applications requiring high speed operation and high timing resolution. In this paper we present design and characterization of bi-dimensional arrays of a next generation of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). Single photon sensitivity, dark noise, afterpulsing and timing resolution of the single SPAD have been examined in several experimental conditions. Moreover, the effects arising from their integration and the readout mode have also been deeply investigated.
Keywords: Single photon; avalanche photodiode; silicon photomultiplier; photon detection efficiency; timing; afterpulsing; cross-talk; 2D array.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Privitera, S.; Tudisco, S.; Lanzanò, L.; Musumeci, F.; Pluchino, A.; Scordino, A.; Campisi, A.; Cosentino, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Condorelli, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Lombardo, S.; Sciacca, E. Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays. Sensors 2008, 8, 4636-4655.

AMA Style

Privitera S, Tudisco S, Lanzanò L, Musumeci F, Pluchino A, Scordino A, Campisi A, Cosentino L, Finocchiaro P, Condorelli G, Mazzillo M, Lombardo S, Sciacca E. Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays. Sensors. 2008; 8(8):4636-4655.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Privitera, Simona; Tudisco, Salvatore; Lanzanò, Luca; Musumeci, Francesco; Pluchino, Alessandro; Scordino, Agata; Campisi, Angelo; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Condorelli, Giovanni; Mazzillo, Massimo; Lombardo, Salvo; Sciacca, Emilio. 2008. "Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays." Sensors 8, no. 8: 4636-4655.

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