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Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays
INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via Santa Sofia 65, 95125 Catania (Italy)
DMFCI-Dip. Met. Chim. Fis. Ing. & Dip. di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, (Italy)
R&D, ST-Microelectronics, Stradale Primosole 50, 95100 Catania (Italy)
IMM-CNR, Stradale Primosole 50, 95100 Catania (Italy)
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2008; in revised form: 1 August 2008 / Accepted: 5 August 2008 / Published: 6 August 2008
Abstract: Single photon detection is one of the most challenging goals of photonics. In recent years, the study of ultra-fast and/or low-intensity phenomena has received renewed attention from the academic and industrial communities. Intense research activity has been focused on bio-imaging applications, bio-luminescence, bio-scattering methods, and, more in general, on several applications requiring high speed operation and high timing resolution. In this paper we present design and characterization of bi-dimensional arrays of a next generation of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). Single photon sensitivity, dark noise, afterpulsing and timing resolution of the single SPAD have been examined in several experimental conditions. Moreover, the effects arising from their integration and the readout mode have also been deeply investigated.
Keywords: Single photon; avalanche photodiode; silicon photomultiplier; photon detection efficiency; timing; afterpulsing; cross-talk; 2D array.
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Privitera, S.; Tudisco, S.; Lanzanò, L.; Musumeci, F.; Pluchino, A.; Scordino, A.; Campisi, A.; Cosentino, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Condorelli, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Lombardo, S.; Sciacca, E. Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays. Sensors 2008, 8, 4636-4655.
Privitera S, Tudisco S, Lanzanò L, Musumeci F, Pluchino A, Scordino A, Campisi A, Cosentino L, Finocchiaro P, Condorelli G, Mazzillo M, Lombardo S, Sciacca E. Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays. Sensors. 2008; 8(8):4636-4655.
Privitera, Simona; Tudisco, Salvatore; Lanzanò, Luca; Musumeci, Francesco; Pluchino, Alessandro; Scordino, Agata; Campisi, Angelo; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Condorelli, Giovanni; Mazzillo, Massimo; Lombardo, Salvo; Sciacca, Emilio. 2008. "Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays." Sensors 8, no. 8: 4636-4655.