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Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5336-5351; doi:10.3390/s8095336
Article

Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a Quadruple Well Technology for Nearly 100% Fill Factor and Full CMOS Pixels

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1 Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX, UK 2 Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK 3 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK 4 Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess - BP28, 67037 Strasbourg, France 5 Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2008 / Revised: 1 September 2008 / Accepted: 1 September 2008 / Published: 2 September 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated High-performance Imagers)
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Abstract

In this paper we present a novel, quadruple well process developed in a modern 0.18 mm CMOS technology called INMAPS. On top of the standard process, we have added a deep P implant that can be used to form a deep P-well and provide screening of N-wells from the P-doped epitaxial layer. This prevents the collection of radiation-induced charge by unrelated N-wells, typically ones where PMOS transistors are integrated. The design of a sensor specifically tailored to a particle physics experiment is presented, where each 50 mm pixel has over 150 PMOS and NMOS transistors. The sensor has been fabricated in the INMAPS process and first experimental evidence of the effectiveness of this process on charge collection is presented, showing a significant improvement in efficiency.
Keywords: CMOS; image sensor; fill factor CMOS; image sensor; fill factor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ballin, J.A.; Crooks, J.P.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M.; Mikami, Y.; Miller, O.D.; Noy, M.; Rajovic, V.; Stanitzki, M.; Stefanov, K.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Villani, E.G.; Watson, N.K.; Wilson, J.A. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a Quadruple Well Technology for Nearly 100% Fill Factor and Full CMOS Pixels. Sensors 2008, 8, 5336-5351.

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