Sensors 2008, 8(9), 5336-5351; doi:10.3390/s8095336
Article

Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a Quadruple Well Technology for Nearly 100% Fill Factor and Full CMOS Pixels

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Received: 14 July 2008; in revised form: 1 September 2008 / Accepted: 1 September 2008 / Published: 2 September 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated High-performance Imagers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: In this paper we present a novel, quadruple well process developed in a modern 0.18 mm CMOS technology called INMAPS. On top of the standard process, we have added a deep P implant that can be used to form a deep P-well and provide screening of N-wells from the P-doped epitaxial layer. This prevents the collection of radiation-induced charge by unrelated N-wells, typically ones where PMOS transistors are integrated. The design of a sensor specifically tailored to a particle physics experiment is presented, where each 50 mm pixel has over 150 PMOS and NMOS transistors. The sensor has been fabricated in the INMAPS process and first experimental evidence of the effectiveness of this process on charge collection is presented, showing a significant improvement in efficiency.
Keywords: CMOS; image sensor; fill factor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ballin, J.A.; Crooks, J.P.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M.; Mikami, Y.; Miller, O.D.; Noy, M.; Rajovic, V.; Stanitzki, M.; Stefanov, K.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Villani, E.G.; Watson, N.K.; Wilson, J.A. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a Quadruple Well Technology for Nearly 100% Fill Factor and Full CMOS Pixels. Sensors 2008, 8, 5336-5351.

AMA Style

Ballin JA, Crooks JP, Dauncey PD, Magnan A-M, Mikami Y, Miller OD, Noy M, Rajovic V, Stanitzki M, Stefanov K, Turchetta R, Tyndel M, Villani EG, Watson NK, Wilson JA. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a Quadruple Well Technology for Nearly 100% Fill Factor and Full CMOS Pixels. Sensors. 2008; 8(9):5336-5351.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ballin, Jamie A.; Crooks, Jamie P.; Dauncey, Paul D.; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Mikami, Yoshiari; Miller, Owen D.; Noy, Matthew; Rajovic, Vladimir; Stanitzki, Marcel; Stefanov, Konstantin; Turchetta, Renato; Tyndel, Mike; Villani, Enrico G.; Watson, Nigel K.; Wilson, John A. 2008. "Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a Quadruple Well Technology for Nearly 100% Fill Factor and Full CMOS Pixels." Sensors 8, no. 9: 5336-5351.


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