Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Measurements of Impedance and Attenuation at CENELEC Bands for Power Line Communications Systems
Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University 61080, Trabzon Turkey
Tebosan Electronics Ltd.Co., Demirkirlar Is Mrkz. No.114, Degirmendere 61100, Trabzon Turkey
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2008; in revised form: 1 December 2008 / Accepted: 5 December 2008 / Published: 8 December 2008
Abstract: Power line impedance is a very important parameter on the design of power line communications (PLC) modem architecture. Variations on the impedance of the power line affect the communications circuit performance. In order to determine impedance of the power lines, measurements were carried out in Turkey at frequencies ranging from 10 to 170 kHz, (CENELEC A,B,C,D bands). Measurements were conducted in three categories: rural, urban and the industrial power lines. Experimental results are presented in graphical form. The measured impedances were determined as 3-17 ohms, 1-17 ohms, and 1-21 ohms for rural, urban and the industrial lines, respectively. A set of the formulas between impedance and frequency are developed on the power lines using the regression analysis from the obtained empirical data. Signal attenuations on the power lines in the CENELEC band are also measured for rural, urban and industrial regions. Attenuation measurements are repeated for phase-neutral, phase-ground and the neutral-ground conductors. Signal attenuations are found to be 4-30 dB, for different power lines. To establish validity of obtained results for the design of PLC systems, the results are compared with previous investigations. The effects of some household appliances such as TV, PC, UPS, lighting and cooling systems on the impedances and the attenuations for power line communications systems are observed. Some suggestions and proposals are presented for PLC modem designers.
Keywords: PLC; PLC impedance; impedance measurements; power line attenuations; urban; rural; industrial; power line modem
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Cavdar, I.H.; Karadeniz, E. Measurements of Impedance and Attenuation at CENELEC Bands for Power Line Communications Systems. Sensors 2008, 8, 8027-8036.
Cavdar IH, Karadeniz E. Measurements of Impedance and Attenuation at CENELEC Bands for Power Line Communications Systems. Sensors. 2008; 8(12):8027-8036.
Cavdar, I. Hakki; Karadeniz, Engin. 2008. "Measurements of Impedance and Attenuation at CENELEC Bands for Power Line Communications Systems." Sensors 8, no. 12: 8027-8036.