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Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes
CSIRO Energy Technology, PO Box 330, Newcastle NSW 2300, Australia
School of Maths, Physics & Information Technology, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2008; in revised form: 3 December 2008 / Accepted: 5 December 2008 / Published: 8 December 2008
Abstract: Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.
Keywords: Energy Harvesting; Energy Storage; Wireless Sensor Networks; Sensor Nodes
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MDPI and ACS Style
Knight, C.; Davidson, J.; Behrens, S. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes. Sensors 2008, 8, 8037-8066.
Knight C, Davidson J, Behrens S. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes. Sensors. 2008; 8(12):8037-8066.
Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam. 2008. "Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes." Sensors 8, no. 12: 8037-8066.