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Sensors 2008, 8(12), 8037-8066; doi:10.3390/s8128037

Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

1,* , 2
1 CSIRO Energy Technology, PO Box 330, Newcastle NSW 2300, Australia 2 School of Maths, Physics & Information Technology, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2008 / Revised: 3 December 2008 / Accepted: 5 December 2008 / Published: 8 December 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications)
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Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.
Keywords: Energy Harvesting; Energy Storage; Wireless Sensor Networks; Sensor Nodes Energy Harvesting; Energy Storage; Wireless Sensor Networks; Sensor Nodes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Knight, C.; Davidson, J.; Behrens, S. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes. Sensors 2008, 8, 8037-8066.

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