Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sensors 2008, 8(10), 6704-6726; doi:10.3390/s8106704
Review

NeuroMEMS: Neural Probe Microtechnologies

1
, 1,*  and 1,2
Received: 2 July 2008; in revised form: 27 September 2008 / Accepted: 21 October 2008 / Published: 25 October 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BioMEMS)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2316 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]
Abstract: Neural probe technologies have already had a significant positive effect on our understanding of the brain by revealing the functioning of networks of biological neurons. Probes are implanted in different areas of the brain to record and/or stimulate specific sites in the brain. Neural probes are currently used in many clinical settings for diagnosis of brain diseases such as seizers, epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer’s, and dementia. We find these devices assisting paralyzed patients by allowing them to operate computers or robots using their neural activity. In recent years, probe technologies were assisted by rapid advancements in microfabrication and microelectronic technologies and thus are enabling highly functional and robust neural probes which are opening new and exciting avenues in neural sciences and brain machine interfaces. With a wide variety of probes that have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date, this review aims to provide an overview of the advances and recent progress in the microfabrication techniques of neural probes. In addition, we aim to highlight the challenges faced in developing and implementing ultralong multi-site recording probes that are needed to monitor neural activity from deeper regions in the brain. Finally, we review techniques that can improve the biocompatibility of the neural probes to minimize the immune response and encourage neural growth around the electrodes for long term implantation studies.
Keywords: Neural probes; Microfabrication; Biocompatibility; Microelectrodes; Brain machine interfaces; Neural prosthesis; NeuroMEMS; BioMEMS Neural probes; Microfabrication; Biocompatibility; Microelectrodes; Brain machine interfaces; Neural prosthesis; NeuroMEMS; BioMEMS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

HajjHassan, M.; Chodavarapu, V.; Musallam, S. NeuroMEMS: Neural Probe Microtechnologies. Sensors 2008, 8, 6704-6726.

AMA Style

HajjHassan M, Chodavarapu V, Musallam S. NeuroMEMS: Neural Probe Microtechnologies. Sensors. 2008; 8(10):6704-6726.

Chicago/Turabian Style

HajjHassan, Mohamad; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Musallam, Sam. 2008. "NeuroMEMS: Neural Probe Microtechnologies." Sensors 8, no. 10: 6704-6726.


Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert