Sensors 2005, 5(6), 317-342; doi:10.3390/s5060317
Review

Long-Term Monitoring of Brain Dopamine Metabolism In Vivo with Carbon Paste Electrodes

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Received: 4 April 2005; Accepted: 28 April 2005 / Published: 14 November 2005
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Paste Electrodes)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This review focuses on the stability of voltammetric signals recorded overperiods of months with carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) implanted in the brain. The keyinteraction underlying this stability is between the pasting oil and brain lipids that arecapable of inhibiting the fouling caused by proteins. In brain regions receiving a significantdopaminergic input, a peak due to the methylated metabolites of dopamine, principallyhomovanillic acid (HVA), is clearly resolved using slow sweep voltammetry. Although anumber of factors limit the time resolution for monitoring brain HVA concentrationdynamics, the stability of CPEs allows investigations of long-term effects of drugs, as wellas behavioral studies, not possible using other in-vivo monitoring techniques.
Keywords: in-vivo voltammetry; homovanillic acid; HVA; ascorbic acid; uric acid; diurnal changes; haloperidol; apomorphine; dopamine release; motor activity; benzodiazepines; food; review.
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MDPI and ACS Style

O’Neill, R.D. Long-Term Monitoring of Brain Dopamine Metabolism In Vivo with Carbon Paste Electrodes. Sensors 2005, 5, 317-342.

AMA Style

O’Neill RD. Long-Term Monitoring of Brain Dopamine Metabolism In Vivo with Carbon Paste Electrodes. Sensors. 2005; 5(6):317-342.

Chicago/Turabian Style

O’Neill, Robert D. 2005. "Long-Term Monitoring of Brain Dopamine Metabolism In Vivo with Carbon Paste Electrodes." Sensors 5, no. 6: 317-342.


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