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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020454

The Taste of Commercially Available Clarithromycin Oral Pharmaceutical Suspensions in the Palestinian Market: Electronic Tongue and In Vivo Evaluation

1
College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Palestine Technical University-Kadoorie (PTUK), Tulkarm B.O.Box 7, Palestine
2
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus B.O.Box 7, Palestine
3
School of Pharmacy, Jordan University, Amman 11942, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 3 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

Background: The taste of oral liquid dosage forms is a crucial factor that impacts paediatric patient compliance. The electronic tongue (ET) is an emerging tool that could be useful in taste assessment in order to minimize the involvement of humans in such evaluations. Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the taste of commercially available clarithromycin (CM) oral pharmaceutical suspensions in the Palestinian market. Method: Commercially available CM suspensions (the brand Klacid® and two generic K1 and K2) were assayed using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Then, the taste of these products was assessed using alpha-astree ET. In addition, an in vivo taste assessment was conducted on paediatric patients by a hedonic panel test. Moreover, volunteering community pharmacists were asked to rank the taste of these three products according to their experience from the best to the worst. Results: All suspension products had a CM concentration not less than 98% of the label amount. The ET results coupled with the principal component analysis (PCA) showed a very clear discrimination of the samples with different distances between groups (p-values < 0.001). Suspensions were in the following order in terms of taste: Klacid® > K1 > K2. Moreover, The pattern discrimination index between (K1 and Klacid®), (K1 and K2) and (Klacid® and K2) were 8.81%, 65.75%, and71.94%, respectively which suggests that K1 and Klacid® are the most similar preparations in terms of taste. Interestingly, these results were in excellent agreement with the pharmacist ranking and patient acceptance test. Conclusions: The evaluated preparations showed significantly different taste within the order of Klacid® > K1 > K2, as suggested by both the ET and in vivo results. Moreover, our results confirm the capability of alpha-astree ET in the taste assessment of oral suspensions and in predicting volunteer responses, which highlights its beneficial use as an in vitro taste assessment tool and as an alternative to human-based taste evaluations. View Full-Text
Keywords: alpha-astree; electronic tongue; clarithromycin; taste; pediatric alpha-astree; electronic tongue; clarithromycin; taste; pediatric
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Abu-Khalaf, N.; Zaid, A.N.; Jaradat, N.; AlKilany, A.; Abu Rumaila, B.; Al Ramahi, R.; Shweiki, S.; Nidal, S.; Surakhi, N. The Taste of Commercially Available Clarithromycin Oral Pharmaceutical Suspensions in the Palestinian Market: Electronic Tongue and In Vivo Evaluation. Sensors 2018, 18, 454.

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