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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010300

Textile Concentric Ring Electrodes for ECG Recording Based on Screen-Printing Technology

1
Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación de Reconocimiento Molecular y Desarrollo Tecnológico (IDM), Universitat Politècnica de València, Universitat de València, Valencia 46022, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Bioingeniería, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia 46022, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 21 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2017)
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Abstract

Among many of the electrode designs used in electrocardiography (ECG), concentric ring electrodes (CREs) are one of the most promising due to their enhanced spatial resolution. Their development has undergone a great push due to their use in recent years; however, they are not yet widely used in clinical practice. CRE implementation in textiles will lead to a low cost, flexible, comfortable, and robust electrode capable of detecting high spatial resolution ECG signals. A textile CRE set has been designed and developed using screen-printing technology. This is a mature technology in the textile industry and, therefore, does not require heavy investments. Inks employed as conductive elements have been silver and a conducting polymer (poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate; PEDOT:PSS). Conducting polymers have biocompatibility advantages, they can be used with flexible substrates, and they are available for several printing technologies. CREs implemented with both inks have been compared by analyzing their electric features and their performance in detecting ECG signals. The results reveal that silver CREs present a higher average thickness and slightly lower skin-electrode impedance than PEDOT:PSS CREs. As for ECG recordings with subjects at rest, both CREs allowed the uptake of bipolar concentric ECG signals (BC-ECG) with signal-to-noise ratios similar to that of conventional ECG recordings. Regarding the saturation and alterations of ECGs captured with textile CREs caused by intentional subject movements, silver CREs presented a more stable response (fewer saturations and alterations) than those of PEDOT:PSS. Moreover, BC-ECG signals provided higher spatial resolution compared to conventional ECG. This improved spatial resolution was manifested in the identification of P1 and P2 waves of atrial activity in most of the BC-ECG signals. It can be concluded that textile silver CREs are more suitable than those of PEDOT:PSS for obtaining BC-ECG records. These developed textile electrodes bring the use of CREs closer to the clinical environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: textile electrode; concentric ring electrode (CRE); Laplacian electrocardiogram; PEDOT:PSS textile electrode; concentric ring electrode (CRE); Laplacian electrocardiogram; PEDOT:PSS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Lidón-Roger, J.V.; Prats-Boluda, G.; Ye-Lin, Y.; Garcia-Casado, J.; Garcia-Breijo, E. Textile Concentric Ring Electrodes for ECG Recording Based on Screen-Printing Technology. Sensors 2018, 18, 300.

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