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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010272

A Multi-Band Body-Worn Distributed Radio-Frequency Exposure Meter: Design, On-Body Calibration and Study of Body Morphology

1
Department of Information Technology (INTEC), Ghent University/imec, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 15, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium
2
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
3
University of Basel, Petersplastz 1, 4001 Basel, Switzerland
4
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
5
National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France
6
Technical Center for Mechanical Industries (CETIM), 60300 Senlis, France
7
Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2788 KB, uploaded 18 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

A multi-band Body-Worn Distributed exposure Meter (BWDM) calibrated for simultaneous measurement of the incident power density in 11 telecommunication frequency bands, is proposed. The BDWM consists of 22 textile antennas integrated in a garment and is calibrated on six human subjects in an anechoic chamber to assess its measurement uncertainty in terms of 68% confidence interval of the on-body antenna aperture. It is shown that by using multiple antennas in each frequency band, the uncertainty of the BWDM is 22 dB improved with respect to single nodes on the front and back of the torso and variations are decreased to maximum 8.8 dB. Moreover, deploying single antennas for different body morphologies results in a variation up to 9.3 dB, which is reduced to 3.6 dB using multiple antennas for six subjects with various body mass index values. The designed BWDM, has an improved uncertainty of up to 9.6 dB in comparison to commercially available personal exposure meters calibrated on body. As an application, an average incident power density in the range of 26.7–90.8 μW·m 2 is measured in Ghent, Belgium. The measurements show that commercial personal exposure meters underestimate the actual exposure by a factor of up to 20.6. View Full-Text
Keywords: radio frequency; personal exposure meter; dosimetry; body morphology; calibration; measurement uncertainty radio frequency; personal exposure meter; dosimetry; body morphology; calibration; measurement uncertainty
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Aminzadeh, R.; Thielens, A.; Agneessens, S.; Van Torre, P.; Van den Bossche, M.; Dongus, S.; Eeftens, M.; Huss, A.; Vermeulen, R.; de Seze, R.; Mazet, P.; Cardis, E.; Rogier, H.; Röösli, M.; Martens, L.; Joseph, W. A Multi-Band Body-Worn Distributed Radio-Frequency Exposure Meter: Design, On-Body Calibration and Study of Body Morphology. Sensors 2018, 18, 272.

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