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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010258

Image-Based Localization Aided Indoor Pedestrian Trajectory Estimation Using Smartphones

1
State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing (LIESMARS), Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center of Geospatial Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smartphone-based Pedestrian Localization and Navigation)
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Abstract

Accurately determining pedestrian location in indoor environments using consumer smartphones is a significant step in the development of ubiquitous localization services. Many different map-matching methods have been combined with pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) to achieve low-cost and bias-free pedestrian tracking. However, this works only in areas with dense map constraints and the error accumulates in open areas. In order to achieve reliable localization without map constraints, an improved image-based localization aided pedestrian trajectory estimation method is proposed in this paper. The image-based localization recovers the pose of the camera from the 2D-3D correspondences between the 2D image positions and the 3D points of the scene model, previously reconstructed by a structure-from-motion (SfM) pipeline. This enables us to determine the initial location and eliminate the accumulative error of PDR when an image is successfully registered. However, the image is not always registered since the traditional 2D-to-3D matching rejects more and more correct matches when the scene becomes large. We thus adopt a robust image registration strategy that recovers initially unregistered images by integrating 3D-to-2D search. In the process, the visibility and co-visibility information is adopted to improve the efficiency when searching for the correspondences from both sides. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated through several experiments and the results demonstrate that it can offer highly acceptable pedestrian localization results in long-term tracking, with an error of only 0.56 m, without the need for dedicated infrastructures. View Full-Text
Keywords: image-based localization; PDR; low-cost indoor localization; SfM image-based localization; PDR; low-cost indoor localization; SfM
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhou, Y.; Zheng, X.; Chen, R.; Xiong, H.; Guo, S. Image-Based Localization Aided Indoor Pedestrian Trajectory Estimation Using Smartphones. Sensors 2018, 18, 258.

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