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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010244

Monitoring Strategies of Earth Dams by Ground-Based Radar Interferometry: How to Extract Useful Information for Seismic Risk Assessment

1
DIAN srl, 75100 Matera, Italy
2
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo, 70126 Bari, Italy
3
Consorzio di Bonifica di Capitanata, 71121 Foggia, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Science e Tecnologie, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Parthenope”, 80133 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 31 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to describe how ground-based radar interferometry can provide displacement measurements of earth dam surfaces and of vibration frequencies of its main concrete infrastructures. In many cases, dams were built many decades ago and, at that time, were not equipped with in situ sensors embedded in the structure when they were built. Earth dams have scattering properties similar to landslides for which the Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBSAR) technique has been so far extensively applied to study ground displacements. In this work, SAR and Real Aperture Radar (RAR) configurations are used for the measurement of earth dam surface displacements and vibration frequencies of concrete structures, respectively. A methodology for the acquisition of SAR data and the rendering of results is described. The geometrical correction factor, needed to transform the Line-of-Sight (LoS) displacement measurements of GBSAR into an estimate of the horizontal displacement vector of the dam surface, is derived. Furthermore, a methodology for the acquisition of RAR data and the representation of displacement temporal profiles and vibration frequency spectra of dam concrete structures is presented. For this study a Ku-band ground-based radar, equipped with horn antennas having different radiation patterns, has been used. Four case studies, using different radar acquisition strategies specifically developed for the monitoring of earth dams, are examined. The results of this work show the information that a Ku-band ground-based radar can provide to structural engineers for a non-destructive seismic assessment of earth dams. View Full-Text
Keywords: ground-based radar; Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR); Real Aperture Radar (RAR); SAR interferometry; earth dam ground-based radar; Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR); Real Aperture Radar (RAR); SAR interferometry; earth dam
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Di Pasquale, A.; Nico, G.; Pitullo, A.; Prezioso, G. Monitoring Strategies of Earth Dams by Ground-Based Radar Interferometry: How to Extract Useful Information for Seismic Risk Assessment. Sensors 2018, 18, 244.

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