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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 186; doi:10.3390/s18010186

Novel Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Sensors and Nanoprobes for the Characterization of Food and Biological Antioxidants

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, Avcilar, 34320 Istanbul, Turkey
2
Turkish Academy of Sciences (TUBA), Piyade Sok., No. 27, Cankaya, 06550 Ankara, Turkey
3
Aytar Cad., Fecri Ebcioglu Sok., No. 6/8, Levent, 34340 Istanbul, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 25 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric Nanosensors)
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Abstract

Since an unbalanced excess of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) causes various diseases, determination of antioxidants that can counter oxidative stress is important in food and biological analyses. Optical/electrochemical nanosensors have attracted attention in antioxidant activity (AOA) assessment because of their increased sensitivity and selectivity. Optical sensors offer advantages such as low cost, flexibility, remote control, speed, miniaturization and on-site/in situ analysis. Electrochemical sensors using noble metal nanoparticles on modified electrodes better catalyze bioelectrochemical reactions. We summarize the design principles of colorimetric sensors and nanoprobes for food antioxidants (including electron-transfer based and ROS/RNS scavenging assays) and important milestones contributed by our laboratory. We present novel sensors and nanoprobes together with their mechanisms and analytical performances. Our colorimetric sensors for AOA measurement made use of cupric-neocuproine and ferric-phenanthroline complexes immobilized on a Nafion membrane. We recently designed an optical oxidant/antioxidant sensor using N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylene diamine (DMPD) as probe, from which ROS produced colored DMPD-quinone cationic radicals electrostatically retained on a Nafion membrane. The attenuation of initial color by antioxidants enabled indirect AOA estimation. The surface plasmon resonance absorption of silver nanoparticles as a result of enlargement of citrate-reduced seed particles by antioxidant addition enabled a linear response of AOA. We determined biothiols with Ellman reagent−derivatized gold nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoprobes; antioxidant capacity; oxidative status; CUPRAC antioxidant assay; DMPD oxidant assay; colorimetric and electrochemical sensors nanoprobes; antioxidant capacity; oxidative status; CUPRAC antioxidant assay; DMPD oxidant assay; colorimetric and electrochemical sensors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Apak, R.; Demirci Çekiç, S.; Üzer, A.; Çelik, S.E.; Bener, M.; Bekdeşer, B.; Can, Z.; Sağlam, Ş.; Önem, A.N.; Erçağ, E. Novel Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Sensors and Nanoprobes for the Characterization of Food and Biological Antioxidants. Sensors 2018, 18, 186.

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