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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010118

Design and Performance of a Pinned Photodiode CMOS Image Sensor Using Reverse Substrate Bias

Centre for Electronic Imaging, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
This paper is an expanded version of our published paper: Stefanov, K.D.; Clarke, A.S.; Ivory, J.; Holland, A.D. Fully Depleted, Monolithic Pinned Photodiode CMOS Image Sensor Using Reverse Substrate Bias. In Proceedings of the 2017 International Image Sensor Workshop, Hiroshima, Japan, 30 May–2 June 2017.
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Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special Issue on the 2017 International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW))
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Abstract

A new pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensor with reverse biased p-type substrate has been developed and characterized. The sensor uses traditional PPDs with one additional deep implantation step to suppress the parasitic reverse currents, and can be fully depleted. The first prototypes have been manufactured on an 18 µm thick, 1000 Ω·cm epitaxial silicon wafers using 180 nm PPD image sensor process. Both front-side illuminated (FSI) and back-side illuminated (BSI) devices were manufactured in collaboration with Teledyne e2v. The characterization results from a number of arrays of 10 µm and 5.4 µm PPD pixels, with different shape, the size and the depth of the new implant are in good agreement with device simulations. The new pixels could be reverse-biased without parasitic leakage currents well beyond full depletion, and demonstrate nearly identical optical response to the reference non-modified pixels. The observed excessive charge sharing in some pixel variants is shown to not be a limiting factor in operation. This development promises to realize monolithic PPD CIS with large depleted thickness and correspondingly high quantum efficiency at near-infrared and soft X-ray wavelengths. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMOS image sensors (CIS); pinned photodiode; full depletion; reverse bias; thermionic emission CMOS image sensors (CIS); pinned photodiode; full depletion; reverse bias; thermionic emission
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Stefanov, K.D.; Clarke, A.S.; Ivory, J.; Holland, A.D. Design and Performance of a Pinned Photodiode CMOS Image Sensor Using Reverse Substrate Bias. Sensors 2018, 18, 118.

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