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Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081783

Investigation of Exhaled Breath Samples from Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and an Exhaled Breath Sensor System

1
Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Science, Kyungpook National University, 50 Samduk, 2 Ga, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-721, Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sankyuk-dong, Puk-Gu, Daegu 41566, Korea
3
Department of Neurology, Kyungpook National University, 50 Samduk, 2 Ga, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-721, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Health Monitoring and Disease Diagnosis)
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Abstract

Exhaled breath is a body secretion, and the sampling process of this is simple and cost effective. It can be non-invasively collected for diagnostic procedures. Variations in the chemical composition of exhaled breath resulting from gaseous exchange in the extensive capillary network of the body are proposed to be associated with pathophysiological changes. In light of the foreseeable potential of exhaled breath as a diagnostic specimen, we used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to study the chemical compounds present in exhaled breath samples from patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and from healthy individuals as a control group. In addition, we also designed and developed a chemical-based exhaled breath sensor system to examine the distribution pattern in the patient and control groups. The results of our study showed that several chemical compounds, such as 1-phenantherol and ethyl 3-cyano-2,3-bis (2,5,-dimethyl-3-thienyl)-acrylate, had a higher percentage area in the AD group than in the PD and control groups. These results may indicate an association of these chemical components in exhaled breath with the progression of disease. In addition, in-house fabricated exhaled breath sensor systems, containing several types of gas sensors, showed significant differences in terms of the normalized response of the sensitivity characteristics between the patient and control groups. A subsequent clustering analysis was able to distinguish between the AD patients, PD patients, and healthy individuals using principal component analysis, Sammon’s mapping, and a combination of both methods, in particular when using the exhaled breath sensor array system A consisting of eight sensors. With this in mind, the exhaled breath sensor system could provide alternative option for diagnosis and be applied as a useful, effective tool for the screening and diagnosis of AD in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: exhaled breath; alzheimer’s disease; gas sensor; exhaled breath sensor system; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry exhaled breath; alzheimer’s disease; gas sensor; exhaled breath sensor system; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
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Lau, H.-C.; Yu, J.-B.; Lee, H.-W.; Huh, J.-S.; Lim, J.-O. Investigation of Exhaled Breath Samples from Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and an Exhaled Breath Sensor System. Sensors 2017, 17, 1783.

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