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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1229; doi:10.3390/s17061229

Evaluation of Feature Extraction and Recognition for Activity Monitoring and Fall Detection Based on Wearable sEMG Sensors

1
School of Automation, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH, 44325, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wan-Young Chung and Sandeep Kumar Vashist
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

As an essential subfield of context awareness, activity awareness, especially daily activity monitoring and fall detection, plays a significant role for elderly or frail people who need assistance in their daily activities. This study investigates the feature extraction and pattern recognition of surface electromyography (sEMG), with the purpose of determining the best features and classifiers of sEMG for daily living activities monitoring and fall detection. This is done by a serial of experiments. In the experiments, four channels of sEMG signal from wireless, wearable sensors located on lower limbs are recorded from three subjects while they perform seven activities of daily living (ADL). A simulated trip fall scenario is also considered with a custom-made device attached to the ankle. With this experimental setting, 15 feature extraction methods of sEMG, including time, frequency, time/frequency domain and entropy, are analyzed based on class separability and calculation complexity, and five classification methods, each with 15 features, are estimated with respect to the accuracy rate of recognition and calculation complexity for activity monitoring and fall detection. It is shown that a high accuracy rate of recognition and a minimal calculation time for daily activity monitoring and fall detection can be achieved in the current experimental setting. Specifically, the Wilson Amplitude (WAMP) feature performs the best, and the classifier Gaussian Kernel Support Vector Machine (GK-SVM) with Permutation Entropy (PE) or WAMP results in the highest accuracy for activity monitoring with recognition rates of 97.35% and 96.43%. For fall detection, the classifier Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (FMMNN) has the best sensitivity and specificity at the cost of the longest calculation time, while the classifier Gaussian Kernel Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (GK-FDA) with the feature WAMP guarantees a high sensitivity (98.70%) and specificity (98.59%) with a short calculation time (65.586 ms), making it a possible choice for pre-impact fall detection. The thorough quantitative comparison of the features and classifiers in this study supports the feasibility of a wireless, wearable sEMG sensor system for automatic activity monitoring and fall detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface electromyography (sEMG); feature extraction; classifier; activity monitoring; fall detection surface electromyography (sEMG); feature extraction; classifier; activity monitoring; fall detection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xi, X.; Tang, M.; Miran, S.M.; Luo, Z. Evaluation of Feature Extraction and Recognition for Activity Monitoring and Fall Detection Based on Wearable sEMG Sensors. Sensors 2017, 17, 1229.

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