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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1198; doi:10.3390/s17061198

Diazonium Salt-Based Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Nanosensor: Detection and Quantitation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water Samples

1
CSPBAT Laboratory, UMR 7244, UFR SMBH, University of Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 93017 Bobigny, France
2
BRGM, F-45060 Orléans CEDEX 02, France
3
IFREMER, Brittany Center, Detection, Sensors and Measurements Laboratory, CS10070, 29280 Plouzané, France
4
Laboratoire TIMR, EA4297, Sorbonne Universités—Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de recherche de Royallieu, rue du docteur Schweitzer, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne CEDEX, France
5
HORIBA Jobin Yvon SAS, 59650 Villeneuve d’Ascq, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault and Gaelle Lissorgues
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France 2016)
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Abstract

Here, we present a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) nanosensor for environmental pollutants detection. This study was conducted on three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), fluoranthene (FL), and naphthalene (NAP). SERS substrates were chemically functionalized using 4-dodecyl benzenediazonium-tetrafluoroborate and SERS analyses were conducted to detect the pollutants alone and in mixtures. Compounds were first measured in water-methanol (9:1 volume ratio) samples. Investigation on solutions containing concentrations ranging from 10−6 g L−1 to 10−3 g L−1 provided data to plot calibration curves and to determine the performance of the sensor. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) was 0.026 mg L−1 (10−7 mol L−1) for BaP, 0.064 mg L−1 (3.2 × 10−7 mol L−1) for FL, and 3.94 mg L−1 (3.1 × 10−5 mol L−1) for NAP, respectively. The correlation between the calculated LOD values and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of the investigated PAHs suggests that the developed nanosensor is particularly suitable for detecting highly non-polar PAH compounds. Measurements conducted on a mixture of the three analytes (i) demonstrated the ability of the developed technology to detect and identify the three analytes in the mixture; (ii) provided the exact quantitation of pollutants in a mixture. Moreover, we optimized the surface regeneration step for the nanosensor. View Full-Text
Keywords: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH); surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS); nanosensor; diazonium salt; surface functionalization; detection polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH); surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS); nanosensor; diazonium salt; surface functionalization; detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tijunelyte, I.; Betelu, S.; Moreau, J.; Ignatiadis, I.; Berho, C.; Lidgi-Guigui, N.; Guénin, E.; David, C.; Vergnole, S.; Rinnert, E.; Lamy de la Chapelle, M. Diazonium Salt-Based Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Nanosensor: Detection and Quantitation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water Samples. Sensors 2017, 17, 1198.

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