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Sensors 2017, 17(4), 930; doi:10.3390/s17040930

Simulation Study of the Localization of a Near-Surface Crack Using an Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Sensor Array

1
Wave Propagation and Signal Processing Research Group, KU Leuven Kulak, 8500 Kortrijk, Belgium
2
Joint International Laboratory LICS/LEMAC, Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnologies, UMR CNRS 8520, 59 652 Villeneuve d’Ascq CEDEX, France
3
Group Science, Engineering and Technology, KU Leuven Kulak, 8500 Kortrijk, Belgium
4
Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), STADIUS, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven-Heverlee, Belgium;
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: M.H. Ferri Aliabadi and Zahra Sharif Khodaei
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Technologies for Health Monitoring of Composite Structures)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1230 KB, uploaded 24 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

The importance of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) to check the integrity of materials in different fields of industry has increased significantly in recent years. Actually, industry demands NDT methods that allow fast (preferably non-contact) detection and localization of early-stage defects with easy-to-interpret results, so that even a non-expert field worker can carry out the testing. The main challenge is to combine as many of these requirements into one single technique. The concept of acoustic cameras, developed for low frequency NDT, meets most of the above-mentioned requirements. These cameras make use of an array of microphones to visualize noise sources by estimating the Direction Of Arrival (DOA) of the impinging sound waves. Until now, however, because of limitations in the frequency range and the lack of integrated nonlinear post-processing, acoustic camera systems have never been used for the localization of incipient damage. The goal of the current paper is to numerically investigate the capabilities of locating incipient damage by measuring the nonlinear airborne emission of the defect using a non-contact ultrasonic sensor array. We will consider a simple case of a sample with a single near-surface crack and prove that after efficient excitation of the defect sample, the nonlinear defect responses can be detected by a uniform linear sensor array. These responses are then used to determine the location of the defect by means of three different DOA algorithms. The results obtained in this study can be considered as a first step towards the development of a nonlinear ultrasonic camera system, comprising the ultrasonic sensor array as the hardware and nonlinear post-processing and source localization software. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-destructive testing; Nonlinear Air-Coupled Emission (NACE); crack localization; Direction Of Arrival (DOA); ultrasonic sensor array non-destructive testing; Nonlinear Air-Coupled Emission (NACE); crack localization; Direction Of Arrival (DOA); ultrasonic sensor array
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Delrue, S.; Aleshin, V.; Sørensen, M.; Lathauwer, L.D. Simulation Study of the Localization of a Near-Surface Crack Using an Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Sensor Array. Sensors 2017, 17, 930.

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