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Sensors 2017, 17(4), 927; doi:10.3390/s17040927

The Use of IMMUs in a Water Environment: Instrument Validation and Application of 3D Multi-Body Kinematic Analysis in Medicine and Sport

1
Health Sciences and Technologies—Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Research, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra, 50, 40064 Ozzano dell’Emilia, Italy
2
Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, C.so D’Augusto, 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy
3
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento, 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy
4
School of Pharmacy, Biotechnology and Sport Science, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 10, 40127 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies in Italy 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3928 KB, uploaded 24 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

The aims of the present study were the instrumental validation of inertial-magnetic measurements units (IMMUs) in water, and the description of their use in clinical and sports aquatic applications applying customized 3D multi-body models. Firstly, several tests were performed to map the magnetic field in the swimming pool and to identify the best volume for experimental test acquisition with a mean dynamic orientation error lower than 5°. Successively, the gait and the swimming analyses were explored in terms of spatiotemporal and joint kinematics variables. The extraction of only spatiotemporal parameters highlighted several critical issues and the joint kinematic information has shown to be an added value for both rehabilitative and sport training purposes. Furthermore, 3D joint kinematics applied using the IMMUs provided similar quantitative information than that of more expensive and bulky systems but with a simpler and faster setup preparation, a lower time consuming processing phase, as well as the possibility to record and analyze a higher number of strides/strokes without limitations imposed by the cameras. View Full-Text
Keywords: IMMU; gait; swimming; water; biomechanics; performance analysis; sports science; stroke analysis IMMU; gait; swimming; water; biomechanics; performance analysis; sports science; stroke analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mangia, A.L.; Cortesi, M.; Fantozzi, S.; Giovanardi, A.; Borra, D.; Gatta, G. The Use of IMMUs in a Water Environment: Instrument Validation and Application of 3D Multi-Body Kinematic Analysis in Medicine and Sport. Sensors 2017, 17, 927.

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