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Sensors 2017, 17(4), 866; doi:10.3390/s17040866

Electrochemical Genosensing of Circulating Biomarkers

Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: María Jesús Lobo-Castañón
Received: 25 March 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genosensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2427 KB, uploaded 17 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Management and prognosis of diseases requires the measurement in non- or minimally invasively collected samples of specific circulating biomarkers, consisting of any measurable or observable factors in patients that indicate normal or disease-related biological processes or responses to therapy. Therefore, on-site, fast and accurate determination of these low abundance circulating biomarkers in scarcely treated body fluids is of great interest for health monitoring and biological applications. In this field, electrochemical DNA sensors (or genosensors) have demonstrated to be interesting alternatives to more complex conventional strategies. Currently, electrochemical genosensors are considered very promising analytical tools for this purpose due to their fast response, low cost, high sensitivity, compatibility with microfabrication technology and simple operation mode which makes them compatible with point-of-care (POC) testing. In this review, the relevance and current challenges of the determination of circulating biomarkers related to relevant diseases (cancer, bacterial and viral infections and neurodegenerative diseases) are briefly discussed. An overview of the electrochemical nucleic acid–based strategies developed in the last five years for this purpose is given to show to both familiar and non-expert readers the great potential of these methodologies for circulating biomarker determination. After highlighting the main features of the reported electrochemical genosensing strategies through the critical discussion of selected examples, a conclusions section points out the still existing challenges and future directions in this field. View Full-Text
Keywords: circulating biomarkers; electrochemical genosensors; cancer; bacterial and viral infections; neurodegenerative diseases circulating biomarkers; electrochemical genosensors; cancer; bacterial and viral infections; neurodegenerative diseases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Campuzano, S.; Yáñez-Sedeño, P.; Pingarrón, J.M. Electrochemical Genosensing of Circulating Biomarkers. Sensors 2017, 17, 866.

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