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Sensors 2017, 17(4), 772; doi:10.3390/s17040772

Characteristics of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Hafnia alvei H4 Isolated from Spoiled Instant Sea Cucumber

1
School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, No. 1, Qinggongyuan, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116034, China
2
Liaoning Key Lab for Aquatic Processing Quality and Safety, No. 1, Qinggongyuan, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116034, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Philip J. Hill
Received: 18 February 2017 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 5 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

This study aimed to identify N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) produced by Hafnia alvei H4, which was isolated from spoiled instant sea cucumber, and to investigate the effect of AHLs on biofilm formation. Two biosensor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens KYC55, were used to detect the quorum sensing (QS) activity of H. alvei H4 and to confirm the existence of AHL-mediated QS system. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the AHLs extracted from the culture supernatant of H. alvei H4 revealed the existence of at least three AHLs: N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL), and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). This is the first report of the production of C4-HSL by H. alvei. In order to determine the relationship between the production of AHL by H. alvei H4 and bacterial growth, the β-galactosidase assay was employed to monitor AHL activity during a 48-h growth phase. AHLs production reached a maximum level of 134.6 Miller unites at late log phase (after 18 h) and then decreased to a stable level of about 100 Miller unites. AHL production and bacterial growth displayed a similar trend, suggesting that growth of H. alvei H4 might be regulated by QS. The effect of AHLs on biofilm formation of H. alvei H4 was investigated by adding exogenous AHLs (C4-HSL, C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL) to H. alvei H4 culture. Biofilm formation was significantly promoted (p < 0.05) by 5 and 10 µM C6-HSL, inhibited (p < 0.05) by C4-HSL (5 and 10 µM) and 5 µM 3-oxo-C8-HSL, suggesting that QS may have a regulatory role in the biofilm formation of H. alvei H4. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hafnia alvei; quorum sensing; AHLs; instant sea cucumber; biofilm formation Hafnia alvei; quorum sensing; AHLs; instant sea cucumber; biofilm formation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hou, H.-M.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Wang, J.-Y.; Jiang, F.; Qu, W.-Y.; Zhang, G.-L.; Hao, H.-S. Characteristics of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Hafnia alvei H4 Isolated from Spoiled Instant Sea Cucumber. Sensors 2017, 17, 772.

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